Alignment of accountability and language planning and policy in the third millennium
In the language planning and policy setting of the third millennium, the specific mechanisms in curriculums for educational states and schools are important in the process of transferring the high quality of instruction to educators. Accountability as a new and critical trend in language education has to do with these mechanisms which lie in governmental policies and helps us to understand how standards effects teaching and learning and how it can be implemented in language planning and policies. The governments try to achieve educational accountability through developing national standards for different curriculum domains, and the role of these standards is so dominant that it cannot be ignored. Following the influence of accountability gives us the reason for investigating how alignment and accountability interact with each other for districts, schools, and classrooms in which leads to enhancing the performances and creation of mutual relationships between accountability and intra-school accountability. This paper is a review related to accountability and its mechanisms, the models in the external mechanism, accountability and standards, and accountability in language planning and policies in the third millennium.
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