Alignment of accountability and language planning and policy in the third millennium

  • Faeze Soleimani Department of Language Teaching and Translation, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.
Keywords: accountability, external mechanism, standards, language planning and policy

Abstract

In the language planning and policy setting of the third millennium, the specific mechanisms in curriculums for educational states and schools are important in the process of transferring the high quality of instruction to educators. Accountability as a new and critical trend in language education has to do with these mechanisms which lie in governmental policies and helps us to understand how standards effects teaching and learning and how it can be implemented in language planning and policies. The governments try to achieve educational accountability through developing national standards for different curriculum domains, and the role of these standards is so dominant that it cannot be ignored. Following the influence of accountability gives us the reason for investigating how alignment and accountability interact with each other for districts, schools, and classrooms in which leads to enhancing the performances and creation of mutual relationships between accountability and intra-school accountability. This paper is a review related to accountability and its mechanisms, the models in the external mechanism, accountability and standards, and accountability in language planning and policies in the third millennium.

References

Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York: Verso.

Apple, M. W. (1981). Accountability, Politics, and Curriculum Policy. The Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies, 7(2), 183-192.

Bassok, D., Dee, T. S., & Latham, S. (2019). The effects of accountability incentives in early childhood education. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 38(4), 838-866.

Boursin, J. L. (1992). Is the language of publication a criterion of accountability?

Bovens, M. (2010). Two concepts of accountability: Accountability as a virtue and as a mechanism. West European Politics, 33(5), 946–967.

Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Accountability policies and measures: What we know and what we need. National Education Association.

Brill, F., Grayson, H., Kuhn, L., & O'Donnell, S. (2018). What Impact Does Accountability Have on Curriculum, Standards and Engagement in Education? A Literature Review. National Foundation for Educational Research. The Mere, Upton Park, Slough, Berkshire, SL1 2DQ, UK.

Bruns, B., Filmer, D., & Patronas, H. A. (2011). Making schools work: New evidence on accountability reforms. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington DC. Retrieved from / Resources/278200-1298568319076/making schools work.pdf

Buxton, C. A., Kayumova, S., & Allexsaht-Snider, M. (2013). Teacher, researcher, and accountability discourses: Creating space for democratic science teaching practices in middle schools. Democracy and Education, 21(2), 2.

Callahan, R. M. (2006). The intersection of accountability and language: Can reading intervention replace English language development?. Bilingual Research Journal, 30(1), 1-21.

Cook, V. (2003). Introduction: The changing L1 in the L2 user’s mind. In V. Cook (Ed.), Effects of the second language on the first (pp. 1-18). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Coburn, C. E., Hill, H. C., & Spillane, J. P. (2016). Alignment and accountability in policy design and implementation: The Common Core State Standards and implementation research. Educational Researcher, 45(4), 243-251.

Conway, M. E. (1988). Curriculum, the professional person, and accountability. Journal of Professional Nursing, 4(2), 74.

Davies, A. (2008). Accountability and standards. In B. Spolsky & F. M. Hult (Eds.), The handbook of educational linguistics (pp. 483-494). Malden. MA: Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470694138.ch34

Dee, T. S., & Dizon-Ross, E. (2019). School Performance, Accountability, and Waiver Reforms: Evidence from Louisiana. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 41(3), 316-349.

Doughty, C. J. (2015). Accountability of Foreign Language Programs. The Modern Language Journal, 99(2), 412-415.

Elmore, R. F., & Rothman, R. (1999). Testing, Teaching, and Learning: A Guide for States and School Districts. National Academy Press, 2102 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418.

Erdağ, C. (2017). Accountability Policies at Schools: A Study of Path Analysis. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 17(4), 1405-1432.

Gooler, D. D., & Grotelueschen, A. (1970). Process Accountability in Curriculum Development.

Hadley, G. (1998). Returning full circle: A survey of EFL syllabus designs for the new millennium". RELC Journal, 29. 2: 50-67.

Hooge, E., & Wilkoszewski, H. (2012). Looking beyond the numbers: Stakeholders and multiple school accountability.

Irons, E. J., Carlson, N. L., Lowery-Moore, H., & Farrow, V. R. (2007). Standards and Accountability Implementation, Why, How, Where: Teachers' Perceptions. Journal of Educational Research & Policy Studies, 7(2), 1-19.

Kramsch, C. (2012). Theorizing translingual/transcultural competence. In G. S. Levine & A. Phipps (Eds.), Critical and intercultural theory and language pedagogy (pp. 15-31). Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle, Cengage learning.

Kachru, Y. (2011). World Englishes: Contexts and relevance for language education. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (vol. 2, pp. 155-172). New York: Routledge.

Levin, H. M. (1974). “A conceptual framework for accountability in education”. The School Review, 82(3), pp. 363-391.

Littlejohn, A. (1998). Language teaching for the millennium. English Teaching Professional, 8: 3-5.

Maftoon, P. Taie, M. (2016). Language curriculum planning for the third millennium: A future perspective. International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 6, No. 4; 2016 ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703

Marsh, C. J. (2004). Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge Falmer.

McDonnell, L. M. (2013). Educational accountability and policy feedback. Educational Policy, 27(2), 170-189.

McKay, S. L. (2011). English as an international lingua franca pedagogy. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (vol. 2, pp. 122-139). New York: Routledge.

McIlrath, L., & MacLabhrainn, I. (Eds.). (2007). Higher education and civic engagement: International perspectives. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

McLaughlin, M. A., Price, P. T., & Shoultz Jr, G. R. (1992). Whole language, critical literacy and accountability. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 25(1), 29-39.

MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages. (2007). Foreign languages and higher education: New structures for a changed world. Profession, 12, 234-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1632/prof.2007.2007.1.234

National Research Council, (1999). Testing, Teaching, and Learning: A Guide for States and School Districts. Washington. DC: The National Academies Press. http://doi.org/10.17226/9609.

National Governors Association. (1986). Common core state standards. Washington, DC.

Neilson, L. (1989). Literacy and living: The literate lives of three adults. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multi-literacies: Designing social futures. Harvard educational review, 66(1), 60-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.17763/haer.66.1.17370n67v22j160u

Ndawi, O., & Peasuh, M. (2005). Accountability and school obligation: a case study of society’s expectations of the school’s curriculum in Zimbabwe. South African journal of education, 25(3), 210-115.

Norton, B. (2001). Non-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom. In M. P. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. 159-171). London: Pearson Education Limited.

Nunan, D. (2006). The second language curriculum in the new millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.lunwen700.com/Article/yingyulunwen/25907.html

OECD (2011). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing.

Poulson, L. (1998). Accountability, teacher professionalism and education reform in England. Teacher Development, 2(3), 419-432.

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (Eds.). (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2013). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Routledge.

Richards, J. C. (2013). Curriculum approaches in language teaching: Forward, central, and backward design. RELC Journal, 44(1), 5-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033688212473293

Robinson, C. D., & Varley, F. (1998). Language diversity and accountability in the South: Perspectives and dilemmas. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2(2), 189-203.

Rogers, T. (2000). Methodology in the New Millennium. English Teaching Forum, 38.2. Retrieved from: Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol38/no2/p2.htm

Shek, D. T., & Hollister, R. M. (2017). University social responsibility and quality of life. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Limited.

Slattery, P. (2012). Curriculum development in the postmodern era: Teaching and learning in an age of accountability. Routledge.

Sparapani, E. F., & Perez, D. M. C. (2015). Perspective on the standardized curriculum and its effect on teaching and learning. Journal of Education & Social Policy, 2(5), 78-87.

Smith, W. C., & Benavot, A. (2019). Improving accountability in education: the importance of structured democratic voice. Asia Pacific Education Review, 1-13.

South Australia Curriculum Standards and Accountability (2005) retrieved from http://www.sacsa.sa.edu.au/index_fsrc.asp?t=Home

Spencer, B. L. (2006). The will to accountability: Reforming education through standardized literacy testing (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (UMI No. NR15947)

Steets, J. (2010). Accountability in public policy partnerships. Palgrave Macmillan.

Stobart, G. (2009). ‘Determining validity in national curriculum assessments’, Educational Research, 51, 2, 161–179, (DOI: 10.1080/00131880902891305) [online]. Available: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131880902891305 [5 September, 2018].

Weideman, A. (2003). Towards accountability: A point of orientation for post-modern applied linguistics in the third millennium". Literator,24.1: 1-20.

Werts, A. B., Della Sala, M., Lindle, J., Horace, J. M., Brewer, C., & Knoeppel, R. (2013). Education stakeholders' translation and sense-making of accountability policies. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 12(4), 397-419.

Whitehead, K. (2001). The South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework: A fillip for middle schooling?. Australian Curriculum Studies Association.

Wiley, T. G., & Wright, W. E. (2004). Against the undertow: Language-minority education policy and politics in the “age of accountability”. Educational Policy, 18(1), 142-168.

Wrigley, J. (1978). Accountability and curriculum development. The South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 6(3), 192-196.
Published
2020-04-27
How to Cite
Soleimani, F. (2020). Alignment of accountability and language planning and policy in the third millennium. AJELP: Asian Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 8(1), 8-17. Retrieved from http://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/AJELP/article/view/3396