Kesan kaedah mengajar terhadap pencapaian awal matematik dalam kalangan kanak-kanak prasekolah

The effects of teaching methods in the early mathematics achievement among preschool children

  • Connie Shin @ Connie Cassy Ompok Fakulti Psikologi dan Pendidikan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Juppri Bacotang Fakulti Pembangunan Manusia, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
Keywords: kaedah mengajar, awal matematik, kanak-kanak prasekolah, teaching methods, early mathematics, preschoolers

Abstract

Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti kesan kaedah mengajar seperti permainan, buku nombor dan lembaran kerja terhadap pencapaian awal matematik yang merangkumi aras pengetahuan, kefahaman dan aplikasi dalam kalangan kanak-kanak prasekolah. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif yang berbentuk kaedah kuasi experimen. Kajian ini melibatkan 1107 orang kanak-kanak prasekolah sebagai sampel, dan menggunakan instrumen Test of Early Mathematics Ability untuk mengumpul data. Data dianalisis melalui statistik deskriptif dan statistik inferensi menggunakan ujian MANCOVA. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan tiga kaedah mengajar, iaitu permainan, buku nombor dan lembaran kerja dapat meningkatkan pencapaian awal matematik kanak-kanak prasekolah. Namun begitu, pengkaji mendapati kaedah mengajar hanya memberi kesan secara signifikan terhadap kefahaman dan analisis awal matematik kanak-kanak prasekolah. Selain itu, kaedah permainan menunjukkan pencapaian awal matematik kanak-kanak prasekolah yang paling tinggi, diikuti dengan kaedah lembaran kerja dan kaedah buku nombor. Justeru, kaedah mengajar yang berteraskan permainan perlu digunakan oleh pendidik dengan sebaik mungkin untuk meningkatkan pencapaian awal matematik kanak-kanak prasekolah.

 

This study aims to identify the effects of teaching methods which are games, number books and worksheets towards early mathematics achievement that includes the levels of knowledge, understanding and application among preschool. This study uses a quantitative approach which is a quasi-experimental method. The study involved 1107 preschool as a sample, and used the Test of Early Mathematics Ability instrument to collect data. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics using the MANCOVA test.The study found that the three teaching methods which is games, number book and worksheet could increase the early mathematics achievement of preschool. However, researchers had found that the teaching methods only had a significant impact on the understanding and analysis early mathematics of preschool children's. In addition, the game method showed the highest achievement of early mathematics for preschool, followed by worksheets and number books. Therefore, game-based teaching methods should be used by educators as much as possible to improve early mathematics achievement of preschool.

 

References

Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Johnson, D., & William, D. (1997). Effective teachers of numeracy: Final Report Feb 1997. London Kings College.

Baroody, A. J. (1987). Children’s mathematical thinking: A developmental framework for preschool, primary, and special education teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.

Bowman, B. T., Donovan, M. S., & Burns, M. S. (eds). (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Washington: National Academy Press.

Casey, B. M., Erkut, S., Ceder, I., & Young, J. M. (2008). Use of a storytelling context to improve girl’s and boy’s geometry skills in kindergarten. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 29-48.

Chen, J. Q., & McNamee, G. D. (2011). Positive approaches to learning in the context of preschool classroom activities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39, 71-78.

Chin, K. E. (2013). Making sense of mathematics: Supportive and problematics conceptions with special reference to trigonometry. A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Warwick.

Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., & Chard, D. J. (2007). Measuring number sense development in young children: A summary of early research. Leadership to Math Success for All, 5, 1-11.

Doig, B. & Ompok, C. (2010). Assessing child informal mathematic abilities throough games. Mathematics in early childhood. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 8, 228-235.

Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, Doabler, C., Baker, S.K., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., Clarke, B., Cary, M.S., & Chard, D. (2011). Impact and implementation analyses of the ELM kindergarten Mathematics intervention. SREE Spring 2012 Conference Abstract Template.

Dunphy, E. (2009). Early childhood Mathematics teaching: Challenges, difficulties and priorities of teachers of young children in primary schools in Ireland. International Journal of Early Years Education, 17(1), 3-16.

Fischetti, J. C. (2013). Issues in education: Last stand for teacher education. Childhood Education, 89(1), 40-41.
Geist, E. (2009). Children are born Mathematicians. Supporting mathematical development, birth to age 8. Columbus: Pearson Education.

Gelman, R., & Gallistel, C. R. (1978). The child’s understanding of number. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gelman, R., & Meck, E. (1986). The notion of principle: the case of counting. In Hiebert, J. (Ed.). The relationship between procedural and conceptual competence, pp. 24-49. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Ginsburg, H. P., & Baroody, A. J. (2003). Test of early Mathematics ability (3rd edition) Austin: PRO-ED SAGE Publications.

Griffin, S., Case, R., & Siegler, R. (1994). Rightstart: Providing the central conceptual prerequisites for first formal learning of arithmetic to students at-risk for school failure. In McGilly, K. (Ed.). Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice, pp. 24-49. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books MIT Press.

Hiebert, J., & Carpenter, T. P. (1992). Learning and Teaching with Understanding. In Grouws, D. (Ed.) Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning, pp. 65‐97. New York: MacMillan.

Hiebert, J., & Lefevre, P. (1986). Conceptual and procedural knowledge in mathematics: An introduction analysis. In Hiebert (Ed.). Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case for mathematics, pp. 1‐27.
Hillsdale. N.J.: Erlbaum.

Hunting, R., Mousley, J. & Perry, B. (2012). Young children learning mathematics: A guide for educators and families. Melbourne, Vic.: ACER press.

Jeffe, K. (2011). Investment in early childhood care and education. Proceedings: Early childhood care and education: The wealth of the nation. ECEC Council Malaysia and UNICEF.

Koran, L. J., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1990). Games or drill: Increasing the multiplication skills of students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 17, 222-230.

Linder, S. M., Powers-Costello, B., & Stegelin, D. A. (2011). Mathematics in early childhood: Research-based rationale and practical strategies. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39, 29-37.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.

Ramani, G. B., & Siegler, R. S. (2008). Promoting broad and stable improvements in low-income children’s numerical knowledge through playing number board games. Child Development, 79(2), 375-394.

Ransom, M. (2012). Choosing a great preschool: A parent's perspective. Childhood Education, 88(4), 266-269.

Rohaty Mohd. Majzub. (2012). Preschool children's early Mathematics achievement based on gender and ethnicity. Asian Social Science, 8(16), 24-29.

Siegler, R. S. (2009). Improving the numerical understanding of children from low-income families. Child Development, 3, 118-124.

Smith, S. S. (2006). Early childhood mathematics (3rd edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Stannard, L., Wolfgang, C. H., Jones, I., & Phelps, P. (2001). A longitudinal study of the predictive relations among construction play and mathematical achievement. Early Child Development and Care, 167(1), 115-125.

Starkey, P., Spelke, E. S., & Gelman, R. (1990). Numerical abstraction by human infants. Cognition, 36(2), 97-127.

Tare, M., Chiong, C., Ganea, P., & DeLoache, J. (2010). Less is more: How manipulative features affect children's learning from picture books. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 395-400.

Thorell, L., Lindqvist, S., Nutley, S., Bohlin, G., & Klingbert, T. (2009). Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental Science, 12(1), 106-113.

Vygotsky, L. (1966). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. Voprosy Pscyhology, 6(12), 62-76.

Wynn, K. (1992). Addition and subtraction by human infants. Nature, 358, 749-750.

Zhou, X., Huang, J., Wang, Z., Wang, B., Zhao, Z., Yang, L., & Yang, Z. (2006). Parent–child interaction and children’s number learning, early child. Development and Care, 176(7), 763-775.

Zigler, E., Gilliam, W., & Jones, S. (2006). The case for universal preschool education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Published
2019-12-23
How to Cite
Ompok, C. S. @ C. C., & Bacotang, J. (2019). Kesan kaedah mengajar terhadap pencapaian awal matematik dalam kalangan kanak-kanak prasekolah. Jurnal Pendidikan Awal Kanak-Kanak Kebangsaan, 8, 8-16. Retrieved from http://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/JPAK/article/view/2409