先生之风 ——马华教育家王宓文教育实践与杜威教育哲学之间的承继脉络

Remembering Wang Fo-wen, Educator and Scholar A Brief Look at His Prominent Career and the Influence of John Dewey’s Educational Philosophy

Keywords: 王宓文, 马华教育, 杜威教育哲学, 新村华校, 独立华文中学

Abstract

王宓文(1903-1972)是新马地区知名教育家,在百年前南来文化人的课题研究上是一名份量甚重的历史人物,在马来亚华文教育课题的研究上尤为不可绕过。[1]王宓文为马华教育的一生,长达40余载,前后处于三个不同位置,即华校教师、政府华校视学官以及独立华文学校校长,为马华教育生存与发展做出了卓越贡献。王宓文在马华杏坛的数十年,经历了自1920年代中期英殖民执政时期到战后马来亚去殖独立的不同历史时段,这恰亦是马华教育从“华侨教育”过渡并演变为“马来(西)亚华文教育”的全过程,而王宓文并非被动目睹者,而是一名全程参与者,在战后殖民和后殖民不同时期的纷杂教育环境中,坚守其“第三立场”,力求把马来亚华文学校建成“开放给所有马来亚人、面向世界与未来的华办学校”。本文根据殖民地档案资料、旧日报章、家人回忆录手稿及口述访问,聚焦马来西亚华文运动中两个重要时刻,即战后紧急状态时期华文师资培训及新村华校的设立,以及五六十年代之交华文独立中学的应运而生,尝试诠释王宓文被誉为“战后华校师训班之父”和“马华独中首位掌舵人”的时空背景和历史含义。教育家王宓文的现代教育理念与实践,受到在美国教育学家杜威的“教育即生活”教育哲学的启迪,并在马来(西)亚华教的艰辛经营历程中逐渐成熟,在在凸显出与杜威教育哲学之间的一条师承脉络。

Wang Fo-Wen (1903-1972) was a prominent educator in Malaysia’s education history, distinguishedin particular by an incredible career of some four decades in Malay(si)an Chinese education.  Studying in the Southeast University in Nanking of China where he was trained as a bilingual educationist, Wang Fo-Wen was imbued with the teaching principles of renowned American educator John Dewey and his Chinese student Tao Hsing-chih; and upon graduation, Wang signed up for “overseas Chinese education” and was sent to British Malaya (then to Dutch Indonesia) to teach in Chinese high schools in the 1922s.  This paper traces Wang Fo-Wen’s life trajectory in Malay(si)a, by examining the three vastly different, if not contrasting, roles that he assumed in Malayan Chinese education at different stages of her life, respectively as Chinese-language high school teacher in the 1920s-30s, Chinese Schools Inspector in the 1930s-50s, and as principal of Foon Yew High School, the first independent Chinese high school in the country’s post-independence education system.  By looking closely at the historical contexts respectively highlighted by the “Malayan Emergency” at the turn of the 1940-50s and the introduction of a uniform national curriculum in 1956, in which Wang Wo-Fen was affectionately referred to as “Father of Teachers Training Classes” and “Pioneering Man at the Helm for Independent Chinese Schools” by the Chinese communities in Malay(si)a successively, this paper argues that Wang Fo-Wen’s views of modern education were enlightened by the philosophy of John Dewey and Tao Hsing-chih, shaped in the midst of the tumultuous times faced by Malay(si)an Chinese education, and were eventually elevated and evolved to Wang’s own unique outlook on Chinese education and teaching in Malaysia.

Keywords: Malay(si)an Chinese education, philosophy of John Dewey, schools in ChineseNew Villages, independent Chinese high schools in Malaysia

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References

【征引文献】

一、中文文献

(1) 王宓文的著述及演讲稿

王宓文著、王赓武编,《王宓文先生纪念文集》(非卖品),1973。

王赓武编,《王宓文纪念集》,新加坡:八方文化企业公司,2002。

王宓文于南洋大学演讲全文,《马来亚华文教育》,原载《南洋商报》(新加坡),1958年4月17日。

王宓文,《宽柔五十年纪念刊·序》,柔佛新山:宽柔金禧纪念特刊编委会,1963。

(2) 王宓文家人回忆录

(一)王夫人丁俨女士回忆录手稿

丁俨,《略述汝父生平之遭遇及事迹》,王赓武提供。

丁俨,《略述我五十年之回忆》,王赓武提供。

(二)王赓武回忆录

王赓武著,林纹沛译《家园何处是》,香港:香港中文大学出版社,2020。

王赓武、林娉婷著,夏沛然译《心安即是家》,香港:香港中文大学出版社,2020。

Wang Gungwu, Home Is Not Here, Singapore: NUS Press, 2018.

Wang Gungwu with Margaret Wang, Home Is Where We Are, Singapore: NUS Press, 2020.

(3) 口述访问

新加坡东亚研究所主席王赓武,2018-2020。

马来西亚柔佛新山宽柔中学前校长张拔川,2019年。

(4) 华文报章资料

《南洋商报》Nanyang Siang Pau(新加坡)

《星洲日报》Sin Chew Jit Poh(新加坡)

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(5) 专著

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_______编,《沈慕羽日记全集·第一卷(1957年)》,马六甲:沈慕羽书法文物馆,2013。

_______编,《历史慕羽——沈慕羽研究论文集》,吉隆坡:林连玉基金,2011。

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______,《马来西亚华文教育发展史》,吉隆坡:马来西亚华校教师会总会,2001。

______,《新马两地华教运动的相互关系》,新加坡:南洋理工大学中华语言文化中心、新加坡亚洲研究学会、南洋大学毕业生协会,2002。

______编,《宽柔论集》,新山: 南方学院出版社,2006。

______,《十年传灯》,吉隆坡:马来亚大学中文系,1982。

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宽柔金禧纪念特刋编委会编,《宽柔五十年纪念刋》,新山:柔佛新山宽柔中小学董事会,1963。

黄昆章,《印度尼西亚华文敎育发展史》,吉隆坡 : 马来西亚华校敎师会总会, 2005。

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(6) 期刊论文与特辑

牛力,〈倔强的少数:西洋文学系与学衡派在东南大学的聚散〉,《民国研究》第35辑(2019年10月),页163-181。

安焕然,《华教需要学术奠基——谈王宓文与宽柔》,见林连玉基金(LLG Cultural Development Centre BHD)“2009华教节特辑”,2009。

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二、英文文献

I. Official Records & Reports

The UK (National Archives at Kew Gardens)

CO 717, Malay states file list and index.

CO 953, Singapore file list and index.

CO 1030, Far Eastern Department file list and index.

Malaysia (National Archives of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur)

B.A. 108/1950 Schools in Resettlement Areas, 1950.

Malayan Union, Annual Report on Education, 1946.

Selangor Education Chinese File.

II. Private Papers

The Professor Wang Gungwu Collection, ISEAS Library, Singapore.

III. Official and Commissioned Reports and Publications

Malayan Union. Annual Report, 1947. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer, 1947.

IV. Newspapers & Journals

The Straits Times (Singapore)

Malaysian Journal of Education, University of Singapore.

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_______ & Garforth, F. John Dewey: Selected Educational Writings, with an introduction and commentary by F.W. Garforth. Heinemann, 1966.

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Lee, T, Chinese Schools in Peninsular Malaysia: The Struggle for Survival. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011.

Martin, J, The Education of John Dewey: A Biography. Columbia University Press, 2002.

Postlethwaite, T.& Thomas, R, Schooling in the ASEAN Region: Primary and Secondary Education in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand ,edited by T. Neville Postlethwaite and R. Murray Thomas. Pergamon Press, 1980.

Samuel, M, Tee, M., & Symaco, L. Education in Malaysia: Developments and Challenges (Vol. 39). Springer Singapore Pte. Limited, 2017.

Schilpp, P, The Philosophy of John Dewey, edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp. ([1st ed.].). Northwestern University, 1939.

Tan, L, The Politics of Chinese Education in Malaya, 1945-1961. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Tan, T, Behind Barbed Wire: Chinese New Villages During the Malayan Emergency, 1948-1960. SIRD, 2020.

Taylor, T.K, Sunset of the Empire in Malaya: A New Zealander's Life in the Colonial Education Service. Radcliffe Press. 2006.

Teoh, K, Schooling Diaspora: Women, Education, and the Overseas Chinese in British Malaya and Singapore, 1850s-1960s. Oxford University Press, 2018.

VI. Book Chapters, Theses & Essays

C.M.Catterns, “Teacher Training in the British Colonies.” The Journal of Negro Education, 14.2 (April1945), pp.251–253.

Leon Comber, “Chinese Education -- Perennial Malayan Problem,”Asian Survey, 1.8 (October1961), pp.30–35.

Charles Hirschman, C, “Educational Patterns in Colonial Malaya,”Comparative Education Review, 16.3 (October1972), pp.486–502.

J. B. P. R, “Education in Malaya.”The World Today, Vol. 12, No. 9 (September, 1956), pp. 379-386.

Philip Kuhn, “Tao Hsing-chih, 1891-1946, An Educational Reformer,” in Papers on China, Vol. 13, Harvard University, 1959, pp. 163-195.

William McLean, “Education in Malaya.”The Journal of Negro Education, 15.3 (July1946), pp.508–512.

Paula Pannu,“The Production and Transmission of Knowledge in Colonial Malaya.”Asian Journal of Social Science, 37.3 (January 2009), pp.427–451.

Victor Purcell, “The Crisis in Malayan Education.”Pacific Affairs, 26.1 (March 1953), pp.70–76.

Sai Siew Min, “Educating Multicultural Citizens: Colonial Nationalism, Imperial Citizenship and Education in Late Colonial Singapore.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (Singapore), 44.1 (February 2013), pp.49–73.

Silcock, T. H., “Policy for Malaya 1952.”International Affairs (London), 28.4 (October 1952), pp.445–451.

Tan, L, “Tan Cheng Lock and the Chinese Education Issue in Malaya.”Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (Singapore), 19.1 (March 1988), pp.48–61.

_______. “The Rhetoric of Bangsa and Minzu: Community and the Nation in Tension, the Malay Peninsula, 1900–1955,” Working Paper No. 52, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1988.

J. K. P. Watson, “Educational Development in South-East Asia: An Historical and Comparative Analysis of the Growth of Education in Thailand, Malaya and Singapore”. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Reading, 1973.

Published
2021-06-30
How to Cite
Xing Hong, I. Z. (2021). 先生之风 ——马华教育家王宓文教育实践与杜威教育哲学之间的承继脉络. ERUDITE: Journal of Chinese Studies and Education, 2(1), 101-137. https://doi.org/10.37134/erudite.vol2.1.6.2021