Factors Impacting Research Productivity of Academic Staff at the Iraqi Higher Education system

  • Alaa S Jameel College of Administrative and Financial Sciences, Department of Public Administration Cihan University- Erbil, Iraq
  • Abd Rahman Ahmad Faculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
Keywords: Research productivity, fund, collaboration, ICT, job satisfaction, academic staff, research publications

Abstract

Research productivity is a vital element in enhancing the university ranking and, it is an important metric to measure the performance of academic staff. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors impacting research productivity of academic staff at Cihan University Erbil, Iraq. A survey was carried out among 87 academic staff randomly selected at the university to determine the impact of Fund, Collaboration, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and Job Satisfaction on Research Productivity. The data was analyzed by using Smart PLS 3.2.9. The results indicated that Fund, Collaboration, ICT and Job Satisfaction had positive and significant impact on Research Productivity, although Fund has the highest impact on Research Productivity. The implication of this study is the management of universities should pay greater attention on  research funding opportunities, rewarding collaboration among researchers, enabling ICT and improving job satisfaction to boost research productivity of the academic staff. For future research, it is recommended to measure the mediating roles of the variables and consider sampling academic staff from other universities to increase generalizability.

References

Abramo, G., D’Angelo, A. C., & Murgia, G. (2017). The relationship among research productivity, research collaboration, and their determinants. Journal of Informetrics, 11(4), 1016–1030.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2017.09.007

Abramo, G., D’Angelo, C. A., & Solazzi, M. (2011). The relationship between scientists’ research performance and the degree of internationalization of their research. Scientometrics, 86(3), 629–643.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-010-0284-7

Africa, S. (2015). A Model Using ICT Adoption and Training to Improve the Research Productivity of Academics. Ph.D. Thesis, Durban University of Technology, Durban, Africa,.

Ahmad, A. R., & Farley, A. (2014). Funding Reforms in Malaysian Public Universities from the Perspective of Strategic Planning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 105–110.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.654

Ahmad, A. R., Farley, A., & Kim-soon, N. (2013). Funding Reforms in Malaysian Public Universities: Transitions towards Competitive Funding. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(10), 553–561.

Ahmad, A. R., Farley, A., & Kim Soon, N. (2014). Categorisation of public universities funding. Asian Social Science, 10(10), 57–67.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n10p57

Ahmad, A. R., Soon, N. K., & Yee, K. S. (2016). Performance based funding mechanisms: The applicability study in the context of Malaysian public universities. International Business Management, Vol. 10, pp. 3872–3877.

Ahmad, A. R., Farley, A., & Kim Soon, N. (2014). Impact of the government funding reforms on the research and development at Malaysian public universities. Asian Social Science, 10(14), 13–22.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n14p13

Ahmad, A. R.., Farley, A., & Naidoo, M. (2013). Asian Economic and Financial Review 2(4):562-576 562 Funding Crisis In Higher Education Institutions: Rationale For Change. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2(4), 562–576. Retrieved from
http://www.aessweb.com/pdf-files/562-576.pdf

Ahmad, M. A.-A., & Jameel, A. S. (2018). Factors Affecting on Job Satisfaction among Academic Staff. Polytechnic Journal, 8(2), 119–128.
https://doi.org/10.25156/ptj.2018.8.2.161

Akl, E. A., Meerpohl, J. J., Raad, D., Piaggio, G., Mattioni, M., Paggi, M. G., … Schünemann, H. J. (2012). Effects of assessing the productivity of faculty in academic medical centres: A systematic review. Cmaj, 184(11), 602–612.
https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.111123

Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2014). Scientometric assessment of Saudi publication productivity in computer science in the period of 1978-2012. International Journal of Web Information Systems, 10(2), 194–208.
https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWIS-01-2014-0001

Alabass, H. S. H. H., Harjan, S. A., Teng, M., & Shah, S. S. H. (2019). The Impact of Corporate Political Connections on Corporate Financial Decisions: Evidence from an Emerging Market. Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences.

Al, H. M. K., Zhang, J., Abdulreza, M. S., Harjan, S. A., & Shah, S. S. H. (2019). The Role of Financial Inclusion and Competitive Advantage: Evidence from Iraqi Islamic Banks. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 9(3), 193.

Alaaraj, S. (2018). Knowledge Management Capability , Trust , and Performance of Manufacturing Companies in Emerging Economies. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 4(8), 45–53.

Alaaraj, S., Mohamed, Z. A., & Ahmad Bustamam, U. S. (2018). External growth strategies and organizational performance in emerging markets: The mediating role of inter-organizational trust. Review of International Business and Strategy, 28(2), 206–222.
https://doi.org/10.1108/RIBS-09-2017-0079

Alaarj, S., Mohamed, Z. A., & Bustamam, U. S. A. (2016a). The Mediating Role of Inter-Organizational Trust between External Growth Strategies and Organizational Performance of Malaysian Companies. Advance in Global Business Research, 13(1).

Alaarj, S., Mohamed, Z. A., & Bustamam, U. S. A. (2017). The effect knowledge management capabilities on performance of companies: A study of service sector. International Journal of Economic Research, 14(15), 457–470.

Alaarj, S., Mohamed, Z. A., & Bustamam, U. S. B. A. (2016b). Mediating Role of Trust on the Effects of Knowledge Management Capabilities on Organizational Performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235(2016), 729–738.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.074

Alghanim, S. A., & Alhamali, R. M. (2011). Research productivity among faculty members at medical and health schools in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, obstacles, and associated factors. Saudi Medical Journal, 32(12), 1297–1303.

Alrahlah, A. A. (2016). The impact of motivational factors on research productivity of dental faculty members: A qualitative study. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 11(5), 448–455.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2016.06.006

Al-Rubeai, Mohamed. Al-Jaafari, Ahmed K.(2019). What problems face Iraqi education?.Middle east one.
https://middle-east-online.com/en/what-problems-face-iraqi-education

Alzuman, A. (2015). Scholars Compass Faculty Research Productivity in Saudi Arabian Public Universities: A Human Capital Investment Perspective. Retrieved from
http://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd%5Cnhttp://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd

Barnett, A. G., Graves, N. C., & Blakely, T. (2015). What is the impact of research funding on research productivity?

Barnett, A. H., Ault, R. W., & Kaserman, D. L. (1988). The Rising Incidence of Co-authorship in Economics: Further Evidence. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 70(3), 539.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1926798

Baumann, A. A., Carothers, B. J., Landsverk, J., Kryzer, E., Aarons, G. A., Brownson, R. C., … Proctor, E. K. (2019). Evaluation of the Implementation Research Institute: Trainees’ Publications and Grant Productivity. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 47(2), 254–264.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-019-00977-4

Beaver, D. D. B. (2001). Reflections on scientific collaboration (and its study): Past, present, and future. Scientometrics, 52(3), 365–377.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014254214337

Butler, L. (2004). What Happens When Funding is Linked to Publication Counts? In Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research (pp. 389–405).
https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2755-9_18

Callaghan, C. W. (2015). Crowdsourced “R&D” and medical research. British Medical Bulletin, 115(1), 67–76.
https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldv035

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications, VE Vinzi, WW Chin, J. Henseler, and H. Wang. New York: Springer.

Defazio, D., Lockett, A., & Wright, M. (2009). Funding incentives, collaborative dynamics and scientific productivity: Evidence from the EU framework program. Research Policy, 38(2), 293–305.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2008.11.008

Dhillon, S. K., Ibrahim, R., Selamat, A., & Sani, S. I. (2013). Diagnosis of Key Performance Indicators Delivery Process Using Viable System Model. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and Its Applications(JDCTA), 7(13).

Ductor, L. (2015). Does co-authorship lead to higher academic productivity? Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 77(3), 385–407.
https://doi.org/10.1111/obes.12070

Feng, G. C. (2020). Research Performance Evaluation in China: A Big Data Analysis. SAGE Open, 10(1).
https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019901257

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Fuzi, I. F., & Fuzi, M. A. Y. (2019). The Influence of Human Resource Practices on Job Satisfaction: Empirical Investigation of Jordan Hotels. International Business Education Journal, 12(1), 15–24.
https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v8i4.13644

Garcia, C. E., & Sanz-Menéndez, L. (2005). Competition for funding as an indicator of research competitiveness. Scientometrics, 64(3), 271–300.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-005-0251-x

faiz Abozaid, R., Mansoor, R. M., Shah, S. S. H., Harjan, S. A., Alalimi, A., & Mustafa, A. (2019). Perceived overqualification and its positive impact on organization employee's behavior. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 8(6), 58-71.

Ghabban, F., Selamat, A., Ibrahim, R., Krejcar, O., Maresova, P., & Herrera-Viedma, E. (2019). The influence of personal and organizational factors on researchers’ attitudes towards sustainable research productivity in Saudi universities. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(17).
https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174804

Ghran, L. A. Z., Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2019). The effect of organizational justice on job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. International Review, 3(4), 84–93.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling with R. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 21(1), 1–16.
https://doi.org/10.1108/ebr-10-2013-0128

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.

Hassan, H., Mohamad, R., Haslinda, R., & Mohd, R. (2020). Factors Affecting Students ’ Academic Performance in Higher Education : Evidence from Accountancy Degree Programme. International Business Education Journal, 13(1), 1–16.

He, Z. L., Geng, X. S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2009). Research collaboration and research output: A longitudinal study of 65 biomedical scientists in a New Zealand university. Research Policy, 38(2), 306–317.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2008.11.011

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20(May 2014), 277–319.
https://doi.org/10.1108/S1474-7979(2009)0000020014

Hottenrott, H., & Lawson, C. (2017). Fishing for complementarities: Research grants and research productivity. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 51, 1–38.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijindorg.2016.12.004

Ibegbulam, I. J., & Jacintha, E. U. (2016). Factors That Contribute to Research and Publication Output Among Librarians in Nigerian University Libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 42(1), 15–20.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.09.007

Iqbal, M. Z., & Mahmood, A. (2011). Factors related to low research productivity at higher education level. Asian Social Science, 7(2), 188–191.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v7n2p188

Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2019a). Leadership and Performance of Academic Staff in Developing Countries. The 33rd International Business Information Management Association Conference, 6101–6106. Granada, Spain: IBIMA.

Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2019b). The effect of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction among Academic Staff. In The 34th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference: 13-14 November 2019, Madrid, Spain.

Jameel, A. S, & Ahmad, A. R. (2020). The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction between Leadership Style and Performance of Academic Staff. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(04), 2399–2414.
https://doi.org/10.37200/IJPR/V24I4/PR201349

Jameel, A. S, Mahmood, Y. N., & Jwmaa, S. J. (2020). Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment among Secondary School teachers. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 1–6.
https://doi.org/10.24086/cuejhss.vol4n1y2020.pp1-7

Jameel, A. S. (2018). Challenges facing students toward ICT library adoption. International Conference on Accounting, Business, Economics and Politics, (April), 231–237.
https://doi.org/10.23918/icabep2018p23

Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, M. A. (2018). Determine some factors that affect to adoption of e-commerce among small and medium enterprises in Erbil. Polytechnic Journal, 8(1).
https://doi.org/10.25156/ptj.2018.8.1.146

Jameel, A. S., Karem, M. A., & Mahmod, N. Z. (2017). A Review of the Impact of ICT on Business Firms. International Journal of Latest Engineering and Management Research, 2(1), 15–19.
https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2906774

Karem, M. A., Mahmood, Y. N., Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2019). The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Nurses’ Performance. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 7(6), 332–339. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7658

Kato, M., & Ando, A. (2013). The relationship between research performance and international collaboration in chemistry. Scientometrics, 97(3), 535–553.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-013-1011-y

Khademi, T., Ismail, K., Lee, C. T., & Shafaghat, A. (2015). Enhancing commercialization level of academic research outputs in research university. Jurnal Teknologi, 74(4), 141–151.
https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v74.4622

Khan, M. R., & Ghouri, A. M. (2018). Enhancing Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty through Customer-Defined Market Orientation and Customer Inspiration: A Critical Literature Review. International Business Education Journal, 11(1), 25–39.

Liu, N. C., & Cheng, Y. (2005). The academic ranking of world universities. Higher Education in Europe, 30(2), 127–136.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03797720500260116

Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Mahmood, Y. N., Raewf, M. B., & Hamadany, Z. S. A.-. (2019). A Study on the Perceptual Relationship between Overtime and Output : Case Study of Knowledge. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 27–31.
https://doi.org/10.24086/cuejhss.vol3n1y2019.pp27-31

Mcneece, C. A. (1981). Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : Faculty Publications , Tenure , And Job Satisfaction In Graduate Social Work Programs. Journal of Education for Social Work, 17(3), 13–19.

Milesi, C., Brown, K. L., Hawkley, L., Dropkin, E., & Schneider, B. L. (2014). Charting the Impact of Federal Spending for Education Research: A Bibliometric Approach. Educational Researcher, 43(7), 361–370.
https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X14554002

Mousa, T. S., Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2019). The Impact of Attitude , Subjective Norm and Information Communications Technology on Knowledge Sharing among Academic Staff. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 23(02), 704–717.

Nafukho, F. M., Wekullo, C. S., & Muyia, M. H. (2019). Examining research productivity of faculty in selected leading public universities in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development, 66(February), 44–51.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2019.01.005

Newman, M. E. J. (2011). The structure of scientific collaboration networks. The Structure and Dynamics of Networks, 9781400841, 221–226.
https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400841356.221

Olakunle, S. A., & Olanrewaju, P. S. (2019). Relationship Between Information Literacy Skills and Research Productivity of Researchers in Nigeria, and the Mediating Role of Socio-Economic Factors. LIBRES: Library & Information Science Research Electronic Journal, 29(1).

Personal, M., & Archive, R. (2008). Munich Personal RePEc Archive The influence of stress and satisfaction on productivity. Munich Personal RePEC Archive, 1–26.

Pezzoni, M., Sterzi, V., & Lissoni, F. (2012). Career progress in centralized academic systems: Social capital and institutions in France and Italy. Research Policy, 41(4), 704–719.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2011.12.009

Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E. (1968). Managerial Attitudes and Performance. In Homewood, IL: Irwin.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2521994

Pouris, A., & Pouris, A. (2010). Competing in a globalising world: International ranking of South African universities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 515–520.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.055

Raewf, M. B., & Thabit, T. H. (2015). The Student ’ s Satisfaction Influential Factors at Cihan University. International Journal Of Advanced Research in Engineering & Management (IJAREM) |, 01(02), 63–72. Retrieved from
http://ssrn.com/abstract=2638744

Rubin, A., & Callaghan, C. W. (2019). Entrepreneurial orientation, technological propensity and academic research productivity. Heliyon, 5(8), e02328.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02328

Shahbazi-Moghadam, M., Salehi, H., Ale Ebrahim, N., Mohammadjafari, M., & Gholizadeh, H. (2015). Effective factors for increasing university publication and citation rate. Asian Social Science, 11(16), 338–348.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v11n16p338

Shin, J. C., & Jung, J. (2014). Academics job satisfaction and job stress across countries in the changing academic environments. Higher Education, 67, 603–620.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9668-y

Shrum, W. (2005). Reagency of the Internet, or, how I became a guest for science. Social Studies of Science, 35(5), 723–754.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312705052106

SJR. (2020). Scimago Journal and Country Rank. Retrieved from Scimago Journal and Country Rank website:
https://www.scimagojr.com/countryrank.php?region=Middle East

Teodorescu, D. (2000). Correlates of faculty publication productivity: A cross-national analysis. Higher Education, 39, 201–222.

Thabit, T. H., & Raewf, M. B. (2015). The Impact of Voluntary Disclosure on SMEs in Developing Countries. 6th International Conference on Global Social Entrepreneurship (Kota Bharu) 2016, 46.

Thabit, T. H., & Raewf, M. B. (2018). The Evaluation of Marketing Mix Elements: A Case Study. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(4), 100–109.
https://doi.org/10.23918/ijsses.v4i4p100

Toutkoushian, R. K., Porter, S. R., Danielson, C., & Hollis, P. R. (2003). Using Publications Counts to Measure an Institution ’ s Research Productivity. Research in Higher Education, 44(2), 121–148.

United States Institute of Peace (2008), Special Report, Higher Education and the Future of Iraq.
https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/46082/sr195.pdf

Wilkinson, B. R., & Durden, C. H. (2015). Inducing structural change in academic accounting research. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 26, 23–36.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpa.2014.03.002

Yazit, N., & Zainab, A. N. (2007). Publication productivity of Malaysian authors and institutions in LIS. Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 12(2), 35–55.

Ynalvez, M. A., & Shrum, W. M. (2011). Professional networks, scientific collaboration, and publication productivity in resource-constrained research institutions in a developing country. Research Policy, 40(2), 204–216.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2010.10.004
Published
2020-05-30
How to Cite
Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2020). Factors Impacting Research Productivity of Academic Staff at the Iraqi Higher Education system. International Business Education Journal, 13(1), 108-126. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/IBEJ/article/view/3568