Assessing the Effects of Oil Spill on Clean-up Workers and Communities’ Participation in Imo State Nigeria

  • Alphonsus O. Isidiho Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Nik Ahmad Sufian Burhan Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Mohammad Shatar Sabran Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Mohd Ibrani Shahrimin Adam Assim Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Ahmad Tarmizi Talib Department of Politics and Government, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Keywords: Communities, Oil spill clean-up, Participation, Impacts, Stakeholders

Abstract

The problems associated with oil spill clean-up has been of burden to all oil spill stakeholders all over the world and the method of clean-up depends on the type of spill, the volume of spill, the location and weather at the time of clean-up. Generally, while the clean-up of oil spill on the sea involves the use of standard oil boom, foxtail skimmer and dispersion system mounted on an airplane, spill on land can be cleaned with high-pressure system, scooping, and in-situ burning. In Imo State, the clean-up was through in-situ burning, scooping and burying the oil. The communities participated in the clean-up as voluntary services and sometimes for financial gains. The study utilized mixed methods and a total of 376 correctly filled and returned out of 400 administered questionnaires were used and 13 interviews were conducted for this research. Purposive sampling method was utilized for the qualitative as it gave the researcher the opportunity to select informants with deep knowledge and experience coupled with willingness to release the authentic data required for the analysis of the study. The findings show that communities in Ohaji/Egbema and Oguta in Imo state Nigeria actively participated in oil spill clean-ups in their localities whenever there was spill and at the end of it, they suffered great psychological, health and other socio-economic impacts.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abbriano, R.M., Carranza, M.M., Hogle, S.L., Levin, R.A., Netburn, A.N., Seto, K.L., Snyder, S.M., & Franks, P.J. (2011). Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review of the planktonic response. Oceanography, 24(3), 294-301.

Abdelwahab, O., Nasr, S.M., & Thabet, W.M. (2017). Palm fibers and modified palm fibers adsorbents for different oils. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 56(4), 749-755.

Adelana, S.O., Adeosun, T.A., Adesina, A.O., & Ojuroye, M.O. (2011). Environmental pollution and remediation: challenges and management of oil Spillage in the Nigerian coastal areas. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2(6), 834-845.

Ajmal, M., Khan, A.H., Ahmad, S., & Ahmad, A. (1998). Role of sawdust in the removal of copper (II) from industrial wastes. Water research, 32(10), 3085-3091.

Ajugwo, A.O. (2013). Negative effects of gas flaring: The Nigerian experience. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 1(1), 6-8.

Amnesty International. (2013). Bad Information: Oil Spill Investigations in the Niger Delta. Retrieved from www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AFR44/.../afr440282013en.pdf.

Annunciado, T.R., Sydenstricker, T.H.D., & Amico, S.C. (2005). Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(11), 1340-1346.

Asadpour, R., Sapari, N.B., Tuan, Z.Z., Jusoh, H., Riahi, A., & Uka, O.K. (2013). Application of Sorbent materials in Oil Spill management: A review. Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2(2), 46-58.

Averett, N. (2016). Louisiana State of Mind: Women's Mental Health after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Environmental health perspectives, 124(9), A170.

Balena, R. (2015). Priority responses to the 2006 Guimaras oil spill, Philippines: Will history repeat itself?. Ocean & Coastal Management, 103, 42-55.

Banerjee, S.S., Joshi, M.V., & Jayaram, R.V. (2006). Treatment of oil spill by sorption technique using fatty acid grafted sawdust. Chemosphere, 64(6), 1026-1031.

Bergaplass, K.T., & Eriksen, C. (2012). Industrial Opportunities in Oil Spill Response in Norway: An Analysis of the Technological Innovation System of Oil Spill Response. Master's thesis, Institutt for industriell økonomi og teknologiledelse.

Betinis, K. (2010). The social and economic impact of the Gulf oil spill. World Socialist Website. Retrieved from https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2010/05/gulf-m24.html.

Biello, D. (2010). Slick Solution: How Microbes Will Clean Up the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Scientific American. Retrieved from
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-microbes-clean-up-oil-spills.

Bilba, K., Arsene, M.A., & Ouensanga, A. (2007). Study of banana and coconut fibers: Botanical composition, thermal degradation and textural observations. Bioresource Technology, 98(1), 58-68.

Boxill, I., Chambers, C.M., & Wint, E. (1997). Introduction to social research: With applications to the Caribbean. The University of the West Indies Press: Kingston.

Cheong, H.K., Ha, M., Lee, J.S., Kwon, H., Ha, E.H., Hong, Y.C., Choi, Y., Jeong, W., Hur. J., Kim, E.J., & Im. H. (2012). Erratum: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities. Environmental Health and Toxicology, 27.

Choi, H.M., & Cloud, R.M. (1992). Natural sorbents in oil spill clean-up. Environmental Science & Technology, 26(4), 772-776.

Choi, K.H., Lim, M.H., Ha, M., Sohn, J.N., Kang, J.W., Choi, Y.H., & Cheong, H.K. (2016). Psychological vulnerability of residents of Communities affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil spill. Disaster Med Public Health Prep, 10(1), 51-58.

Cohen, J.M., and Uphoff T.N. (1977). Rural Development Participation: Concept and Measures for Project Design, Implementation and Evaluation. Cornell University.

Creswell, J. & Plano-Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative and mixed methods approaches. Sage Publications.

D'Andrea, M.A., & Reddy, G.K. (2013). Health consequences among subjects involved in Gulf oil spill clean-up activities. The American journal of medicine, 126(11), 966-974.

Di Natale, M. (2010). The economic impact of the gulf oil spill: The oil leak and drilling moratorium could cost Gulf Coast economies tens of thousands of jobs. Retrieved from
https://www.economy.com/dismal/analysis/free/191641.

Dowding, D. (2013). Best Practices for Mixed Methods Research in the Health Sciences John W. Creswell, Ann Carroll Klassen, Vicki L. Plano Clark, Katherine Clegg Smith for the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research; Qualitative Methods Overview Jo Moriarty. Qualitative Social Work, 12(4), 541–545.
http://doi.org/10.1177/1473325013493540a

Egwu, S.A. (2012). Oil spill control and management. Petroleum Technology Development Journal, 19(3), 457-478.

Epstein, P.R., & Selber, J.B. (2002). A life cycle analysis of its health and environmental impacts. The Center for Health and the Global Environment. Harvard Medial School, EUA, Marzo: Boston.

Etkin, D.S. (2001). Analysis of oil spill trends in the United States and worldwide. In International oil spill conference, 2001(2), 1297-1299.

Etkin, D.S., McCay, D.F., Rowe, J., & Pilkey-Jarvis, L. (2005). Modeling impacts of response method and capability on oil spill costs and damages for Washington State spill scenarios. In International Oil Spill Conference, 2005(1), 467-473.

Eykelbosh, A.J. (2014). Short-and long-term health impacts of marine and terrestrial oil spills. Vancouver Coastal Health. Retrieved from
www.vch.ca/media/VCH-health-impacts-oil-spill.pdf.

Gill, D.A. (2007). Technological Disaster, Resource Loss and Long-Term Social Change in a Subarctic Community: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Impacts on Alaska Natives and Commercial Fishermen in Cordova, Alaska—2001-2006. National Science Foundation award# 0082405. Societal Risk Unit. Social Science Research Center, Mississippi State University.

Gill, D.A., & Picou, J.S. (1997). The day the water died: cultural impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In Picou, J.S., Gill, D.A., Cohen, M. (Eds), The Exxon Valdez disaster: readings on a modern social problem (pp. 167-191). Dubuque, Kendall Hunt.

Gill, D.A., & Picou, J.S. (1998). Technological disaster and chronic community stress. Society & Natural Resources, 11(8), 795-815.

Gill, D.A., & Picou, J.S. (2001). The day the water died: The Exxon Valdez disaster and indigenous culture. Modern American Disasters, 277-301.

Gill, D.A., Picou, J.S., & Ritchie, L.A. (2012). The Exxon Valdez and BP oil spills: A comparison of initial social and psychological impacts. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(1), 3-23.

Gill, D.A., Picou, J.S., & Ritchie, L.A. (2014). Twenty-four years of social science research on the Exxon Valdez oil spill: sociocultural and psychosocial impacts in a commercial fishing community. In International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, 2014(1), 80-92.

Gutierrez, T. (2011). Identifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in oil-contaminated surface waters at Deepwater Horizon by cultivation, stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology, 10, 301-305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11157-011-9252-9

Gwack, J., Lee, J.H., Kang, Y.A., Chang, K.J., Lee, M.S., & Hong, J.Y. (2012). Acute health effects among military personnel participating in the clean-up of the Hebei spirit oil spill, 2007, in Taean county, Korea. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives, 3(4), 206-212.

Ha, M., Kwon, H., Cheong, H.K., Lim, S., Yoo, S.J., Kim, E.J., Park, S.G., Lee, J., & Chung, B.C. (2012). Urinary metabolites before and after cleanup and subjective symptoms in volunteer participants in cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Science of the Total Environment, 429, 167-173.

Hansel, T.C., Osofsky, H.J., Osofsky, J.D., & Speier, A. (2015). Longer-term mental and behavioral health effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 3(4), 1260-1271.

Hazen, T.C., Dubinsky, E.A., DeSantis, T.Z., Andersen, G.L., Piceno, Y.M., Singh, N., Jansson, J.K., Probst, A., Borglin, S.E., Fortney, J.L., Stringfellow, W.T., Bill, M., Conrad, M.E., Tom, L.M., Chavarria, K.L., Alusi, T.R., Lamandella, R., Joyner, D.C., Spier, C., Baelum, J., Auer, M., Zemla, M.L., Chakraborty, R., Sonnenthal, E.L., D’haeseleeer, P., Holman, H.N., Osman, S., Lu, Z., Nostrand, J.D.V., Deng, Y., Zhou, J., & Mason O.U. (2010). Deep-sea oil plume enriches indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Science, 330(6001), 204-208.

Hong, S., Khim, J.S., Ryu, J., Kang, S.G., Shim, W.J., & Yim, U.H. (2014). Environmental and ecological effects and recoveries after five years of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, Korea. Ocean & Coastal Management, 102, 522-532.

Horowitz, M., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41(3), 209-218.

Idris, J., Eyu, G.D., Mansor, A.M., Ahmad, Z., & Chukwuekezie, C.S. (2014). A preliminary study of biodegradable waste as sorbent material for oil-spill cleanup. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/638687.

Isidiho, A.O., & Sabran, M.S.B. (2016). Evaluating the top-bottom and bottom-up community development approaches: Mixed method approach as alternative for rural un-educated communities in developing countries. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(4), 266-273.

Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H., Farooqui, S.Z., Khuwaja, U.B., Jafri, S.N., Lutfi, S.A., Kadir, M.M., & Sathiakumar, N. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6(1), 84.

Jones, C. (2011). Tourism returning a year after the Gulf oil spill. Retrieved from
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-04-20-tourism-rebounds-gulf-.htm.

Jung, D., Kim, J.A., Park, M.S., Yim, U.H., & Choi, K. (2017). Human health and ecological assessment programs for Hebei Spirit oil spill accident of 2007: Status, lessons, and future challenges. Chemosphere, 173, 180-189.

Kate, A. (2011). Royal Dutch Shell and its sustainability troubles. Background report to the Erratum of Shell’s Annual Report 2010. 1–71. Retrieved from
https://www.foei.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Shell-background-report.pdf

Kwok, R.K., Engel, L.S., Miller, A.K., Blair, A., Curry, M.D., Jackson, W.B., Stewart, P.A., Stenzel, M.R., Birnbaum, L.S., Sandler, D.P., & GuLF STUDY Research Team. (2017). The GuLF STUDY: a prospective study of persons involved in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response and clean-up. Environmental health perspectives, 125(4), 570-578.

Lee, J., Rehner, T., Choi, H., Bougere, A., & Osowski, T. (2016). The Deepwater Horizon oil spill and factors associated with depressive symptoms among residents of the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Disaster Prevention and Management, 25(4), 534-549.

Morita, A., Kusaka, Y., Deguchi, Y., Moriuchi, A., Nakanaga, Y., Iki, M., Miyazaki, S., & Kawahara, K. (1999). Acute health problems among the people engaged in the cleanup of the Nakhodka oil spill. Environmental Research, 81(3), 185-194.

Muizis, A. (2013). Evaluation of the Methods for the Oil Spill Response in the Offshore Arctic Region. Thesis Submitted at Hel sinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010). Oil and sea turtles: biology, planning, and response. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Response and Restoration. Retrieved from
https://response.restoration.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/Oil_Sea_Turtles.pdf

National Population Commission. (2006). National population and housing census. Abuja, Federal Government of Nigeria.

Nriagu, J.O. (2011). Oil industry and the health of communities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Encycl. Environ. Health, 4, 558-567.

Olga, R., Viktor, R., Alexander, I., Zinnur, S., & Alexandra, P. (2015). Adsorption of hydrocarbons using natural adsorbents of plant origin. Procedia Chemistry, 15, 231-236.
10.1016/j.proche.2015.10.037

Palinkas, L.A., Petterson, J.S., Russell, J., & Downs, M.A. (1993). Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(10), 1517-1523.
https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.150.10.1517

Peres, C.A., Emilio, T., Schietti, J., Desmoulière, S.J., & Levi, T. (2016). Dispersal limitation induces long-term biomass collapse in overhunted Amazonian forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(4), 892-897.
10.1073/pnas.1516525113

Picou, J.S. (1996). Toxins in the environment, damage to the community: sociology and the toxic tort. Witnessing for sociology: Sociologists in court, 211, 212-224.

Picou, J.S., & Gill, D.A. (1997). Commercial fishers and stress: psychological impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The Exxon Valdez disaster: Readings on a modern social problem, 211-236.

Picou, J.S., & Gill, D.A. (1996). The Exxon Valdez oil spill and chronic psychological stress. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 18, 879–893.

Picou, J.S., & Arata, C. (1997). Chronic impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Resource loss and commercial fishers. Coping with Technological Disasters, 1997, J2-J43.

Pigrau, A. (2012). The Texaco-Chevron Case in Ecuador. Ejolt Factsheet, 42, 12.

Ramseur, J.L. (2010). Oil spills in US coastal waters: background, governance, and issues for congress. Diane Publishing.

Rim-Rukeh, A. (2015). Oil spill management in Nigeria: SWOT analysis of the joint investigation visit (JIV) process. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6(3), 259.

Ritchie, L.A., Gill, D.A., & Farnham, C.N. (2013). Recreancy revisited: Beliefs about institutional failure following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Society & Natural Resources, 26(6), 655-671.

Rung, A.L., Gaston, S., Oral, E., Robinson, W.T., Fontham, E., Harrington, D.J., Trapido, E., & Peters, E.S. (2016). Depression, mental distress, and domestic conflict among Louisiana women exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the WaTCH study. Environmental health perspectives, 124(9), 1429-1435.

Sathasivam, K., & Haris, M.R.H.M. (2010). Adsorption kinetics and capacity of fatty acid-modified banana trunk fibers for oil in water. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 213(1-4), 413-423.

Sholeye, O., Salako, A., & Ayankoya, S. (2012). Oil spills and community health: Implications for resource limited settings. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 4(9), 145-150.

Shultz, J.M., Walsh, L., Garfin, D.R., Wilson, F.E., & Neria, Y. (2015). The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster. The journal of behavioral health services & research, 42(1), 58-76.

Sidik, S. M., Jalil, A.A., Triwahyono, S., Adam, S.H., Satar, M.A.H., & Hameed, B.H. (2012). Modified oil palm leaves adsorbent with enhanced hydrophobicity for crude oil removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 203, 9-18.
10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.132

Solomon, G.M., & Janssen, S. (2010). Health effects of the Gulf oil spill. Jama, 304(10), 1118-1119.

Stanbury, M., Hekman, K., Wells, E., Miller, C., Smolinske, S., & Rutherford, J. (2010). Acute Health Effects of the Enbridge Oil Spill. Lansing, Michigan, 1-23.

Steiner, R. (2010). Double standard: Shell Practices in Nigeria Compared with International Standards to Prevent and Control Pipeline Oil Spills and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. This report is written on behalf of: Friends of the Earth Netherlands. Retrieved from
http://oasisearth.com/Resources/Milieudefensie%20rapport%20Shell%20Double%20Standard%20L%2010 -50-4435%20LR.pdf

Tashakkori, A., Teddlie, C., & Teddlie, C.B. (1998). Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches (Vol. 46). Sage Publication.

Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Sage.

Turan, M. (2009). Turkey’s Oil Spill Response Policy: Influences and Implementation. The United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship Programme 2008–2009. Retrieved from
https://www.un.org/depts/los/nippon/unnff_programme_home/fellows_pages/fellows_papers/turan_08 09_turkey.pdf

United Nations Environment Programme. (2011). UNEP Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland. United Nations Environment Programme: Kenya

White, I. C. & Molloy F. C. (2003). Factors that determine the cost of oil spills. International oil spill conference, 2003(1), 1225-1229.

Whitehead, A., Dubansky, B., Bodinier, C., Garcia, T.I., Miles, S., Pilley, C., Raghunathan, V., Roach, J.L., Walker, N., Walter, R.B., Rice, C.D., & Galvez, F. (2012). Genomic and physiological footprint of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident marsh fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20298-20302.

Yim, U.H., Kim, M., Ha, S.Y., Kim, S., & Shim, W.J. (2012). Oil spill environmental forensics: the Hebei Spirit oil spill case. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(12), 6431-6437.

Zock, J.P., Rodríguez-Trigo, G., Pozo-Rodríguez, F., Barberà, J.A., Bouso, L., Torralba, Y., Anto, J.M., Gomez, F.P., Fuster, C., Verea, H., & SEPAR-Prestige Study Group*. (2007). Prolonged respiratory symptoms in clean-up workers of the prestige oil spill. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 176(6), 610-616.

Zock, J.P., Rodríguez-Trigo, G., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E., Espinosa, A., Pozo-Rodríguez, F., Gómez, F., Fuster, C., Castano-Vinyals, G., Anto, J.M., & Barberà, J.A. (2012). Persistent respiratory symptoms in clean-up workers 5 years after the Prestige oil spill. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 69(7), 508-513.
10.1136/oemed-2011-100614
Published
2020-07-30
How to Cite
O. Isidiho, A., Burhan, N. A. S., Sabran, M. S., Adam Assim, M. I. S., & Talib, A. T. (2020). Assessing the Effects of Oil Spill on Clean-up Workers and Communities’ Participation in Imo State Nigeria. Journal of Contemporary Issues and Thought, 10, 10-24. https://doi.org/10.37134/jcit.vol10.sp.2.2020

Most read articles by the same author(s)