Human Management Competencies of Manufacturing Firms: A Pilot Study from Malaysia


  • Rajaletchumy a/p Mani
  • Wan Salmuni Binti Wan Mustaffa


Human management, Competencies, Skills, Industry 4.0


The Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 is capable of triggering revolutionary (strategic) and evolutionary (operational) changes. Nonetheless, assessing human management competencies in Industry 4.0 has largely been a challenge. Thus, this empirical study aimed to understand the employee competencies and skills needed in Industry 4.0. The scope of the study involved electronic and electrical small and medium Malaysian manufacturing firms. Utilising a research framework based on the human capital theory, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey technique was adopted to collect pilot study data from 100 respondents. The results highlighted that competencies of threshold, distinguishing, task requirement, communication and language, and creativity and innovation are necessary to gain employment in Industry 4.0. Additionally, creativity and innovation competencies are considered more important among respondents. The outcome of this pilot study bridged the theoretical gap and provided original contributions to current literature. As a recommendation, the findings can act as a stepping stone for managers and organisations transitioning towards Industry 4.0.


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How to Cite

a/p Mani, R., & Binti Wan Mustaffa, W. S. (2023). Human Management Competencies of Manufacturing Firms: A Pilot Study from Malaysia. Journal of Contemporary Issues and Thought, 14(1), 1–15. Retrieved from