Utilising ‘Toh’ Models in Reducing Misconceptions in Orbital Hybridisation among Matriculation College Students


  • Amal Harun Matriculation College Kuala Pilah
  • Rosmawati Jamluddin Matriculation College Kuala Pilah
  • Nik Abibahton Nik Ali Matriculation College Kuala Pilah
  • Norleha Md Dukol Matriculation College Kuala Pilah


Hybridisation, Hybrid orbitals, Matriculation, Chemistry


The concept of hybridisation is one of the most difficult concepts for chemistry students to grasp at all levels of learning. Research showed the students conceptual difficulty ranged from their lack of the pre-requisite knowledge for grasping the topic hybridisation to chemical bond formation and orientations of atomic orbitals. This study investigated the difficulties and misconceptions held by matriculation students about atomic orbitals and hybridization. A total of 88 students were used in the study in Negeri Sembilan Matriculation College. The participants responded to multiple choice and constructed response questions on hybridization at the start of the research. They answered the different set of questions but same difficulties level at the end of a two weeks treatment period. The responses were analyzed and response categories established on their misconceptions. The post-test was to assess their gain in conception at the end of the treatment period after using TOH Model. The findings showed that matriculation students' knowledge of atomic orbitals and hybridization was seriously distorted. Suggestions have been made for more effective teaching approaches to ensure better understanding of the concept and encourage active learning among students.


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How to Cite

Amal Harun, Rosmawati Jamluddin, Nik Abibahton Nik Ali, & Norleha Md Dukol. (2023). Utilising ‘Toh’ Models in Reducing Misconceptions in Orbital Hybridisation among Matriculation College Students. Journal of Contemporary Issues and Thought, 14(1), 30–39. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/JCIT/article/view/8988