Effect of neuromuscular training to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury among female athletes
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is more prone on female athletes compared to male athletes in non-contact mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of four weeks neuromuscular training which closely associated with the dynamic balance and agility performance for preventing ACL injury among female athletes. There were sixteen female athletes from Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) who are volleyball, basketball and futsal players participated in this study. The subjects were divided randomly into two groups; control group (CG) and experimental group (EG). The EG experienced four weeks of neuromuscular training while the CG performing their regular training. The pre-test and post-test were measured using Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for dynamic balance and T-Test for agility. Statistical data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and the results demonstrated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) for dynamic balance and agility between EG and CG. Therefore, this finding implied that neuromuscular training improved the female athletes in term of dynamic balance and agility which reduce the prevalence of ACL injury.
Cimino, F., Volk, B. S., & Setter, D. (2010). Anterior cruciate ligament injury: diagnosis, management, and prevention. American Academy of Family Physicians, 82(8), 917-922.
Donnel-Fink, L. A., Klara, K., Collins, J. E., Yang, H. Y., Goczalk, M. G., Katz, J. N., & Losina, E. (2015). Effectiveness of knee injury and anterior cruciate ligament tear prevention programs: a meta-analysis. PloS ONE, 10(12), 1-17.
Gilchrist, J., Mandelbaum, B. R., Melancon, H., Ryan, G. W., Silvers, H. J., Griffin, L. Y., Watanabe, D. S., Dick, R.W., & Dvorak, J. (2008). A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female collegiate soccer players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(8), 1476-1483.
Granan, L. P., Inacio, M. C. S., Maletis, G. B., Funahashi, T. T., & Engebretsen, L. (2013). Sport-specific injury pattern recorded during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(12), 2814-2818.
Herman, K., Barton, C., Malliaras, P., & Morrissey, D. (2012). The effectiveness of neuromuscular warmup strategies that require no additional equipment for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review. BMC Medicine, 10(75), 1-12.
Hewett, T. E., Lindenfeld, T. N., Riccobene, J. V., & Noyes, F. R. (1999). The effect of neuromuscular training on incidence of knee injury in female athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(6), 699-706.
Myer, G. D., Ford, K. R., Palumbo, J. P., & Hewett, T. E. (2005). Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(1), 51-60.
Noyes, F. R., & Barber-Westin, S. D. (2013). Neuromuscular retraining intervention programs: do they reduce noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury rates in adolescent female athletes? The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 30(2), 245-255.
Raj, S. V. (2015). Importance of neuromuscular training for athletes. India: Science Research Publication.
Sugimoto, D., Myer, G. D., McKeon, J. M., & Hewett, T. E. (2012). Evaluation of the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: a critical review of relative risk reduction and numbers-needed-to-treat analyses. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(14), 979-988.
Sugimoto, D., Myer, G. D., Foss, K. D. B., & Hewett, T. E. (2014). Specific exercise effect of preventive neuromuscular training intervention on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk reduction in young females: meta-analysis and subgroup analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(5), 282-289.
Tamara, C. V., McLeod, T. A., Mathew, M., & Jamie, L. S. (2009). Balance improvements in female high school basketball players after a 6-week neuromuscular-training program. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 18(4), 465-481.
Yoo, J. H., Lim, O. B., Ha, M., Lee, S. W., Oh, S. J., Lee, Y. S., & Kim, J, G. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effect of neuromuscular training on the prevention of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy, 18(6), 824-830.
Zebis, M. K., Bencke, J., Andersen, L. L., Dossing. S., Tine, A., Magnusson, P., Michael, K., & Per, A. (2008). The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during side cutting in female elite soccer and handball players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18(4), 329-337.