Faktor risiko dinamik residivisme dalam kalangan Orang DiParol (ODP): Perspektif kakitangan Parol

Dynamic risk factors amongst Parolees: Perspective of Parole staffs

  • Norruzeyati Che Mohd Nasir School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Noor Azizah Ahmad School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Ahmad Shukri Abdul Hamid School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Mariny Abdul Ghani School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Mohd Alif Jasni School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
Keywords: Faktor risiko dinamik, residivisme, bekas banduan, Orang DiParol (ODP)

Abstract

Setiap banduan yang dikenakan hukuman pemenjaraan di atas kesalahan jenayah yang dilakukan akan kembali kepada masyarakat kecuali bagi pesalah hukuman mati. Proses integrasi semula ke dalam masyarakat umum bukanlah suatu proses yang mudah. Terdapat pelbagai cabaran yang perlu dihadapi oleh bekas banduan. Sekiranya mereka gagal dalam proses tersebut, kemungkinan bekas banduan akan terlibat semula dalam tingkah laku jenayah atau residivisme. Perkara ini menimbulkan kebimbangan terutamanya kepada agensi yang terlibat secara langsung dalam rehabilitasi banduan dan Orang DiParol (ODP). Pelaksanaan sistem parol di Malaysia pada tahun 2008 adalah antara usaha pihak kerajaan khususnya Jabatan Penjara dalam membantu ODP berjaya dalam proses integrasi semula. Kakitangan parol merupakan individu yang paling hampir dengan ODP dan bekas banduan selain keluarga. Oleh itu, kajian ini dilakukan untuk meneroka pandangan kakitangan parol tentang faktor risiko dinamik residivisme yang dihadapi oleh klien mereka. Kajian kualitatif ini melibatkan temu bual secara mendalam dengan 13 kakitangan parol Jabatan Penjara Malaysia. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat empat faktor risiko dinamik residivisme yang perlu diberi perhatian iaitu kegagalan mendapatkan pekerjaan, stigma dan sikap masyarakat yang ragu-ragu serta tertutup terhadap bekas banduan, faktor diri sendiri dan kesediaan untuk berubah, serta penolakan keluarga. Hasil kajian ini adalah signifikan terutamanya kepada agensi kerajaan yang terlibat secara langsung dalam sistem keadilan jenayah, ahli akademik, pengamal bantuan seperti pekerja sosial, kaunselor dan pegawai psikologi penjara serta Badan Bukan Kerajaan.

Abstract

Each prisoner who is sentenced to imprisonment for a crime committed will go back to the society except those prisoners who are sentenced for death penalty. The process of reintegration into the society is not an easy process. There are various challenges that need to be faced by the former prisoners. . If they were unable to cope with those challenges, the former prisoners might return to prison. This is of particular concern to agencies that are directly involved in the rehabilitation of prisoners and paroles (Orang DiParol; ODP). The implementation of the parole system in Malaysia in 2008 is part of the efforts by the government, especially the Prison Department, in helping the ODP to succeed in the reintegration process. Parole staffs are the closest people to the ODP and former prisoners besides their family. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the parole staffs’ views on the dynamic risk factors of residivism faced by their clients. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 13 Malaysian Prison Department personnel. This study has found there are four dynamic risk factors of recidivism that need to be addressed: unemployment, stigma and skepticism toward former prisoners, personal factors, and willingness to change as well as family rejection. The results of this study are significant to government agencies who are involved directly in the criminal justice system, academicians, practitioners such as social workers, counselors, prison psychologists and non-governmental agencies.

Keyword: Dynamic risk factors, residivisme, ex-prisoners, parolees

 

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Published
2020-05-25
How to Cite
Che Mohd Nasir, N., Ahmad, N. A., Abdul Hamid, A. S., Abdul Ghani, M., & Jasni, M. A. (2020). Faktor risiko dinamik residivisme dalam kalangan Orang DiParol (ODP): Perspektif kakitangan Parol. EDUCATUM Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 22-32. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/EJOSS/article/view/2976