The effects of project based learning in mandarin language speaking skill

Kesan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek Terhadap Kemahiran Bertutur Bahasa Mandarin

  • Eng Li Yin Jabatan Bahasa Moden, Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
Keywords: Project Based Learning, Speaking Skill, Mandarin Language, Stoller Model, component


The aim of this study is to look into the effects of Project Based Learning (PjBL) in speaking skill on vocational college non-native Mandarin learners. A quasi-experimental study was carried out on 43 Mandarin learners, in which 23 learners were in the experimental group while 20 learners were in the control group. The participants were selected using convenience sampling technique. An adaptation of Stoller model (1997) was applied in the experimental group interventions while the control group was involved in a conventional teaching approach. Speaking skill was analyzed using speaking pretest and speaking posttest, which looked into the component of accuracy, pronunciation and fluency. The speaking pretest and speaking posttest data were analyzed using t-test. The result of the findings showed that the improvement achieved by experimental group is higher and more significant compared to the control group. The finding of the research provides suggestion towards how teachers can apply PjPL in their teaching sessions based on the suitability of the topic they teach.

Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti kesan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek (PBP) terhadap kemahiran bertutur bahasa Mandarin dalam kalangan pelajar bukan penutur jati di kolej vokasional. Reka bentuk kuasi eksperimen telah dijalankan terhadap 43 orang pelajar bahasa Mandarin, dengan 23 orang pelajar dalam kumpulan eksperimen dan 20 orang pelajar dalam kumpulan kawalan. Peserta kajian dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik persampelan mudah. Adaptasi model Stoller (1997) diaplikasi dalam kumpulan eksperimen manakala kumpulan kawalan mengikuti pendekatan pengajaran konvensional. Kemahiran bertutur diuji dengan menggunakan ujian bertutur pra dan ujian bertutur pasca dengan melihat pada komponen ketepatan, sebutan dan kefasihan. Data ujian bertutur pra dan ujian bertutur pasca dianalisis dengan menggunakan ujian-t. Hasil dapatan kajian menunjukkan kumpulan eksperimen mencapai peningkatan yang lebih signifikan berbanding dengan kumpulan kawalan. Hasil dapatan ini mencadangkan guru mengaplikasikan PBP dalam sesi pengajaran berdasarkan kesesuaian topik pembelajaran.

Kata kunci: Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek, Kemahiran Bertutur, Bahasa Mandarin, Model Stoller, komponen


Download data is not yet available.


Ady, M.V.T., Luis, F.G. & Rodriguez. (2017). Increasing EFL learners’ oral production at a public school through project-based learning. Profile Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 19(2), 57-71.

Almusharraf, N. (2018). English as a foreign language learner autonomy in vocabulary development. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 11(2), 159–177.

Borg, S. & Alshumaimeri, Y. (2017). Language learner autonomy in a tertiary context: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 1-30.

Brown, H. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Second Edition. White Plains, NY: Addison-Wesley.

Brown, H.D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. New York: Pearson Education.

Cakici, D. (2017). An investigation of learner autonomy in Turkish EFL context. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(2), 89-99.

Cheong, K.M., Jano Z., Salam S., Abdul Bareed N., Ithnin, F., Suraidi, N. (2019). Motivational factors among undergraduates learning mandarin: A qualitative perspective. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 8(2), 187–199. doi:

Chiong, H.A., Fan, P.S. (2019). A study of current situation and problems of teaching Mandarin in Malaysian. Jurnal of Han Jiang, (1), 223-246.

Cheun, H. H. (2006). Problems encountered in teaching Chinese as a second language in Malaysia. Malaysia: New Era College.

Chua, H. W. & Kamarul Azlan, M. A. (2019). Factors influencing foreign language learners’ motivation in continuing to learn Mandarin. EDUCATUM Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), 1-6.

Chua, H.W. H., Lim, C.Y., & Azlan, M. A. K. (2018). The influence of task-based language teaching and audio-lingual teaching approach on Mandarin language learning outcomes. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), 123-141. doi:

Clark, V.L.P & Creswell, J.W. (2010). Understanding research: A consumer’s guide. Pearson.

Collier, L.D. (2017). Using a project-based language learning approach in the high school Spanish classroom: Perceived challenges and benefits (Master Thesis). Brigham Young University.

Di, Y. (2016). Effects of project-based learning on speaking abilities of non-English major Chinese students (Master Thesis). Suranaree University of Technology.

Eng, L.Y. (2020). A concept paper: The effectiveness of project based learning on speaking skill among non-native Mandarin learners in vocational college Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(7), 638–646. doi:

Esmail, Z.B & Tayebe, S. (2017). The effect of project based learning (pbl) on the components of speaking ability of Iranian EFL beginner learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, Volume 4, 119-130.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E. & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in eduation (Eight Edition). McGraw-Hill.

Hashim, H., Ali, M.N. & Samsudin, M.A. (2018). Nurturing Habits of Mind (HOM) through Thinking Based Learning (TBL) in doing Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) project. EDUCATUM Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology, 5(2), 7-18.

Hedge, T. (1993). Key concepts in EFL: Project work. ELT Journal, 47(3), 275-277.

Henry, J. (1994). Teaching through projects. London: Kogan Page.

Herrington, J. & Oliver, R. (2000). An instructional design framework for authentic learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(3), 23-48.

Iriani, A. P., Abidin, S.F.F. & Safitri, S.R. (2019). Project-based learning in Chinese classroom: A way to stimulate students. International Seminar on Language, Education, and Culture, KnE Social Sciences, 77–84. Doi: 10.18502/kss.v3i10.3890

Jacobs, G.M. (2016). Ten strengths of how teachers do cooperative learning. Beyond Words, 4(1), 10-17.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM). (2013). Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025 (PPPM). Putrajaya: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2018). Kurikulum Standard Kolej Vokasional Bahasa Mandarin Diploma Kolej Vokasional Malaysia.

Kokotsaki, D., Menzies, V. & Wiggins, A. (2016). Project-based learning: A review of the literature. Improving Schools, 19 (3), 267-277.

Li, X. (2014). Dui Wai Han Yu Jiao Xue Zhong de Xiang Mu Jiao Xue Fa Tan Suo (Tesis Master). Universiti Perguruan Nanjing.

Markham, T., Larmer, J. & Ravitz, J. (2003). Project based learning handbook. Buck Institute for Education.

Moritoshi, T.P. (2017). The perceived English language learning outcomes associated with project-based language learning: A case study at a Japanese junior college (Doctor of Philosophy Thesis), Aston University.

Murad, T.M. (2009). The effect of task-based language teaching on developing speaking skills among the palestinian secondary efl students in Israel and their attitudes towards English (Doctor of Philosophy Thesis). Yarmouk University.

Niu, H.Y. (2019). The teacher design of elementary Chinese comprehensive course for Thailand based on project based learning – Taking animal as an example (Master Thesis). Anyang Normal University.

Putri, A., Putu, A. & Nltiasih. (2017). Project-based learning activities and EFL students’ productive skills in English. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8, 1147-1155.

Rule, A.C. (2006). The components of authentic learning. Journal of Authentic Learning, 3(1), 1-10.

Shi, W. & Han, L. (2019). Promoting learner autonomy through cooperative learning. English Language Teaching, 12(8), 30-36.

Slavin, R. (2013). Cooperative learning and achievement: Theory and research. In Reynolds, W., Miller, G. & Weiner, I. (Eds.). Handbook of psychology (2nd ed). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 199-212.

Stoller, F. (2002). Project work: a means to promote language and content. In J. Richards & W. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge University Press.

Stoller, F. (2006). Establishing a theoretical foundation for project based learning in second and foreign language context. In G. Beckett, & P. Miller (Eds.), Project-based second and foreign language education: Past, Present, and Future Information. Age Publishing Inc.

Stoller, F. L. (1997). Project work: A means to promote language and content. English Teaching Forum, 35 (4), 2.

Tan, T.G., Ooi, A. K., Hairul Nizam Ismail. (2012). The orientation for learning Mandarin amongst Malay undergraduate students. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(12).

Ur, P. (2006). a course in language teaching: Practice and theory (13th Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vanessa, L. (2019). Project-based learning to develop the speaking skill in English (Master Thesis). Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador.

Van Lam, N. (2011). Project-based learning in teaching English as a foreign language. VNU Journal of Science, Foreign Languages, 140-146.

Yuliani, Y. & Lengkanawati, N.S. (2017). Project-based learning in promoting learner autonomy. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 285–293.

Zhao, J. & Becket, G.H. (2014). Project based Chinese as a foreign language instruction – A teacher research approach. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 49(2), 45-74.

Zheng, Y. (2020). Teaching design of oral Chinese course in Indonesian primary school- Take Wenqiao trilingual school in Bali as an example (Master Thesis). Guangdong University of Foreign Studies.

Zhou, X.B. (2009). Dui Wai Han Yu Jiao Xue Dao Lun. Beijing: The Commercial Press.

How to Cite
Yin, E. L. (2021). The effects of project based learning in mandarin language speaking skill. EDUCATUM Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 34-44.