Communicative Readiness and Motivation among UNHCR Refugee Teachers of English in Malaysia
To explore communicative readiness and motivation among refugee teachers in Malaysia, 30 refugee teachers registered under UNHCR were recruited Drawing on a quantitative approach, questionnaires consisting of 20 items adapted from McCroskey and Richmond’s (2013) Willingness to Communicate Scale, Gardner’s (2004) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) and Fulmer’s (2010) Organisational Communication Survey were distributed. The data analysis revealed that communication apprehension was negatively associated with willingness to communicate and anxious teachers were less willing to communicate with strangers and acquaintances. A negative relationship between interpersonal conversation subscale of communication apprehension and intrinsic motivation was also observed. Those who regarded learning English as important were more willing to converse in the said language. It is hoped that this study could serve as an introductory guide to NGOs and existing voluntary groups when designing materials, syllabus and curriculum specifications for refugee teachers.
Ajape1, K. O., Mamat, A. & Azeez, Y. A. (2015). Students’ motivation and attitude towards the learning of Arabic language: A case study of Arabic students in Nigerian universities. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 5(Special Issue), 122-127.
Carreira, J. M. (2005). New framework of intrinsic/extrinsic and integrative/instrumental motivation in second language acquisition. The Keiai Journal of International Studies, 16, 39-64.
Dornyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31(3), 117-135
Dornyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson.
Fulmer, B. N. (2010). An investigation of willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, and selfesteem in the workplace. (Unpublished master’s dissertation). University of Tennessee. Retrieved from
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold Publishers.
Gardner, R. C. (2004). Attitude/motivation test battery: International AMTB research project (English version). Retrieved from
Idris, A. (2012). Malaysia and forced migration. Intellectual Discourse, 20(1), 31-54.
Liu, M. (2012). Motivation in Chinese university EFL learners in varying learning contexts. TESL Reporter, 45(2), 17-39.
Low, S. K., Kok, J. K., & Lee, W. Y. (2014). Perceived discrimination and psychological distress of Myanmar refugees in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 4(3), 201-205.
Macintyre, P. D., Clement, R., Dornyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545562.
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (2013). Willingness to communicate (WTC): Measurement instrument database for the social science. Retrieved from
Ng, C. F., & Ng, P. K. (2015). A review of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of ESL learners. International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, 1(2), 98-105.
Pattapong, K. (2010). Willingness to communicate in a second language: A qualitative study of issues affecting Thai EFL learners from students’ and teachers’ points of view. Retrieved from
Riasati, M. J. (2012). EFL learners’ perception of factors influencing willingness to speak English in language classrooms: A qualitative study. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(10), 1287-1297.
Roach, K. D. (1998). Teaching assistant communication apprehension, willingness to communicate, and state communication anxiety in the classroom. Communication Research Reports, 15(2), 130-140.
Roach, K. D. (1999). The influence of teaching assistant willingness to communicate and communication anxiety in the classroom. Classroom Quarterly, 47(2), 166-182.
UNHCR Malaysia. (2011). Education. Retrieved from
Zachariah, E. (2012, May 24). Spotlight: Refugees' struggle for education. News Straits Times Malaysia. Retrieved from
Zarrinabadi, N. (2014). Communicating in a second language: Investigating the effect of teacher on learners’ willingness to communicate. System, 42, 288–295.
Zubairi, A. M. & Sarudin, I. H. (2009). Motivation to learn a foreign language in Malaysia. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 9(2), 73 -87.