在黑暗里传中文教育薪火:以钱穆、林语堂和沈慕羽为例

Passing on the torch of Chinese Language Education in the Dark Case studies on Ch’ien Mu, Lin Yutang, and Shen Muyu

  • Wen-wei Shiu National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan
Keywords: 中文教育, 钱穆, 林语堂, 沈慕羽, 华语语系文学

Abstract

本文旨在回顾香港、新加坡与马来西亚中文教育历史,讲述世变下知识分子传递中文教育薪火曲折与艰辛。藉由钱穆、林语堂与沈慕羽在1949年之后推动中文教育的故事,铺陈出离散处境下,知识分子如何将中文与人文精神,灌注在异乡教育体系中,又如何试图实践他们的生命关怀,并在风雨如晦的时代,传递中文的薪火。钱穆在英国殖民地上,建构书院,面对中国大陆当时弃传统于不顾,他尽一己心力,挽狂澜于既倒的用心,实在不应仅当作一则贫困中的传奇,更值得细心考察他对文学、人文与通识教育的重视。在钱穆与林语堂的挫败中,更不难体察到,在殖民地与异国的政治文化下,华裔离散经验的凶险与混沌,意识型态国家机器总是会以各式的动员方式,将文化与思想单一化,中文作为一种特色 与反抗的力量,除非有足够坚强的社会力量,有识之士能够团结,不停歇抗争,确实不易薪火相传。沈慕羽更展现出晦暗风雨中的一丝光芒,本于基本权力保障的意识,长期抗争,团结教育界、商界与小区力道,使得马来西亚成为两岸三地外,华文教育体系保留最完整的国家。显见中文的薪火传承向来不是水到渠成的,而是必须透过知识分子与教育环境、政治文化与知识力量激烈辩难,投注自身的信仰、理念与坚持,方才能够点燃文学的火花。

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to review the history of Chinese language education in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia, and state the tortuous and difficult processes that intellectuals had to go through to pass on the torch of Chinese language education in a changing world. Based on Ch’ien Mu, Lin Yutang, and Shen Muyu's stories for promoting Chinese language education after 1949, this paper states how intellectuals implemented Chinese language and humanistic spirit into the education systems in foreign lands, as well as how they put into practice their care for lives and passed on the torch of Chinese language education. Ch’ien Mu established an academic institution in the British colony. He had to face the fact that mainland China abandoned the tradition at the time and he put all his efforts into saving the critical situation, which should not only be regarded as a legend in a poverty situation, but we shall also carefully study how he valued the importance of literature, humanity and general education. It is not difficult to realize from the frustration of Ch’ien Mu and Lin Yutang that the risk and chaos of Chinese descent had been encountered under the political culture of colonization and foreign countries. The ideological state apparatus always utilizes a variety of mobilization methods to integrate culture and ideas for homogeneity. With its characteristics and resistance force, the torch of the Chinese language is indeed not easy to be passed on, unless the intellectuals were able to be united to fight ceaselessly with sufficient forces from the society. Moreover, Shen Muyu represented a glimmer of light on a dark rainy night. Based on the awareness of protecting fundamental rights, Shen combined the strength from the education industry, business industry, and communities to conduct a long-term fight to empower Malaysia to become the country with the most comprehensive Chinese language education system outside mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. It is obvious that passing on the torch of Chinese Language is not a matter of course, but instead, the spark of literature can only be ignited through the processes of the fierce argument between intellectuals and education environment, political culture and intellectual power, along with their dedicated beliefs, ideas, and persistence.

Keywords: Chinese education, Ch'ien Mu, Lin Yutang, Shen Muyu, Sinophone literature

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Published
2020-12-18
How to Cite
Shiu, W.- wei. (2020). 在黑暗里传中文教育薪火:以钱穆、林语堂和沈慕羽为例. ERUDITE: Journal of Chinese Studies and Education, 1(2), 60-76. https://doi.org/10.37134/erudite.vol1.2.2.2020