Psychometric Assessment of ‘The Need for Instructional Video in Bullying Among Parents’: A Newly Developed Instrument

Authors

  • Safiyyah Shaharuddin Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Nor Junainah Mohd Isa Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Mahizer Hamzah Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Nor Kalsum Mohd Isa Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Zahari Suppian Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37134/esss.vol3.2.7.2022

Keywords:

psychometric assessment, bullying, parents

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the underlying structure and internal consistency of the newly developed instrument, The Need for Instructional Videos on Bullying among Parents. The instrument's purpose is to identify parents' knowledge of bullying, their intervention skills, their role in bullying, need for an instructional video on bullying and adult learning (andragogy). The quantitative study includes 154 parents in Malaysia who have children in primary and secondary school. The cross-sectional survey design study was administered once and distributed virtually to parents in Malaysia. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's alpha testing were used to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. The extraction method used was Principal Axis Factoring with Varimax Rotation. The EFA extracted five factors with 73.01% total variance. The five factors, namely (i) knowledge about bullying: 5 items; (ii) bullying intervention skill: 6 items; (iii) parents' role: 5 items; (iv) need for instructional video: 3 items; and (v) self-learning attitude: 6 items. The internal consistency was found to be very good among the items (Cronbach's α = 0.913). The high internal consistency value shows that the instrument is reliable. The findings suggest that the measure offers good validity and reliability the instrument.  Therefore, this research contributes in a way for researchers to use the instrument to develop instructional videos on bullying for parents to gain the correct resources to prevent the bullying culture from damaging the children's development.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alcalá, D. H., Rio, J. F., Calvo, G. G., & Pueyo, Á. P. (2019). Effects of a cooperative learning intervention program on cyberbullying in secondary education: A case study. The Qualitative Report, 24(10), 2426-2440. https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/effects-cooperative-learning-intervention-program/docview/2307947051/se-2?accountid=13155

Begotti, T., Tirassa, M., & Maran, D. A. (2018). Pre-service teachers’ intervention in school bullying episodes with special education needs students: A research in Italian and Greek samples. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9). doi:10.3390/ijerph15091908

Buerah, T., Shanah, N., & Hamimah, A. (2015). Delinkuen pelajar dan cadangan penyelesaiannya menerusi Model Pembangunan Sahsiah Remaja/ Pelajar Muslim Bersepadu. Jurnal Hadhari: An International Journal, 7(2), 11 - 30.

Buttram, C., Macmillan III, D., & Thompson, L. (2012). Source credibility: How to select the best sources. Retrieved from UNA Center for Writing Excellence: https://www.una.edu/writingcenter/docs/Writing-Resources/Source%20Credibility.pdf

Ceka, A., & Murati, R. (2016). The role of parents in education of children. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(5), 61-64.

Conroy, R. (2015). Sample size: A rough guide. Retrieved from Ethics (Medical Research) Committee: http://www.beaumontethics.ie/docs/

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 927-334.

Dangmaneerat, L., & Eamoraphan, S. (2019). A comparative study of attitudes towards bullying and perception towards handling bullying among stakeholders at the international school of Chonburi, Thailand. Scholar: Human Sciences, 11, 9. https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/comparative-study-attitudes-towards-bullying/docview/2384106645/se-2?accountid=13155

Glen, S. (2016, May 11). Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Test for sampling adequacy. Retrieved from Statistics HowTo: https://www.statisticshowto.com/kaiser-meyer-olkin/

Georgiou, S. N., Ioannou, M., & Stavrinides, P. (2018). Cultural values as mediators between parenting styles and bullying behavior at school. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 21(1), 27-50. doi:10.1007/s11218-017-9413-y

Gomez-Ortiz, O., Apolinario, C., Romera, E. M., & Ortega-Ruiz, R. (2019). The role of family in bullying and cyberbullying involvement: Examining a new typology of parental education management based on adolescents' view of their parents. Social Sciences, 8(25), 1-15. doi:10.3390/socsci8010025

Hair , J. F. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2009.

Ismail, M. S., Nurmaimun, M., Noriani , D., Nurul Shaliza, S., Mohd Johar, J., Faizal Amri, H., & Afliza, A. B. (2021). Effectiveness of self-directed small-group-learning against self-directed individual-learning using self-instructional-video in performing critical emergency procedures among medical students in Malaysia: A Single-blinded randomized controlled study. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2021.02.006.

Jamal Safri, S., Faridah, K., & Zuria, M. (2010). Sifat maskulin dan tingkah laku membuli. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia, 35(1), 77 - 82.

Junainor, H., Salleh, A., Suliadi Firdaus, S., & Mohd Kasturi, N. (2016). Buli di kalangan pelajar sekolah rendah luar bandar: Kajian kes di kawasan Felda Utara Kedah-Perlis, Malaysia. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 30(1), 113 - 125.

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.

Larrañaga, E., Yubero, S., & Navarro, R. (2018). Parents’ responses to coping with bullying: Variations by adolescents’ self-reported victimization and parents’ awareness of bullying involvement. Social Sciences, 7(8). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080121

Lee, S.-h., & Ju, H.-j. (2019). Mothers’ difficulties and expectations for intervention of bullying among young children in South Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(924), 1-24. doi:10.3390/ijerph16060924

Lester, L., Pearce, N., Waters, S., Barnes, A., & Beatty, S. (2017). Family involvement in a whole-school bullying intervention: mothers' and fathers' communication and influence with children. Journal of Children, Family and Students, 26, 2716-2727. doi:10.1007/s10826-017-0793-6

McGuire, L., & Norman, J. O. (2018). Parents coping with cyberbullying: A bioecological analysis. In S. Campbell, & S. Bauman, Reducing Cyberbullying in Schools (61-72). MA: Cambridge.

Monts, B. (2001). Andragogy or pedagogy: A discussion of instructional methodology for adult learners. Illinois State University. Unpublished paper, 21(4).

Muduli, A., Kaura, V., & Quazi, A. (2018). Pedagogy or andragogy? Views of Indian postgraduate business students. IIMB Management Review, 30(2), 168-178. doi:10.1016/j.iimb.2018.01.008

Muhammad Saleem, Rozmi, I., Arena, C., & Ezarina, Z. (2015). Impact of peer bullying on school students with and without ADHD symptoms: Z cross-sectional study from Pakistan. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 29(2), 61-70.

Murphy, T. P., Laible, D., & Augustine, M. (2017). The influences of parent and peer attachment on bullying. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(5), 1388-1397. doi:10.1007/s10826-017-0663-2

Museva, J. (2010). Applications of andragogy in multi-disciplined teaching and learning. Journal of Adult Education, 39(2), 25-35.

Nadia, A., & Wan Ahmad Jaafar, W. (2017). A theoretical framework for designing a multimedia app in increasing knowledge and perceived awareness towards cyber-bullying among adolescents. Journal of Computing Research and Innovation, 2(4), 33-38.

National Center for Educational Statistics. (2019). Students Reports of bullying results from The 2017 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. U.S. Department of Education.

Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-Based Nursing, 18(2). doi:10.1136/eb-2015-102054

Nor Junainah, M. I (2019). Meneroka perspektif ibu bapa mengenai permasalahan buli anak-anak: Pendekatan constructivist grounded theory. Unpublished PhD thesis. Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Nor Junainah, M.I, Mohd Sobri, I., & Amelia, M.N (2019). Bullying problems among students: What do teachers say? Jurnal Perspektif, 11(2), 1-14.

Rao, A. (2020, June 4). Commentary: Cyberbullying just keeps getting worse. Even COVID-19 hasn't dampened its spread. Retrieved from Channel News Asia: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/commentary/cyber-bullying-getting-worse-even-covid-19-thivya-suicide-12788682

Renshaw, T. L. (2011). Effects of the promoting positive peer relationships—classroom resource on student attitudes toward bullying and perceptions of school bullying supports. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/effects-i-promoting-positive-peer-relationships/docview/896615615/se-2?accountid=13155

Roberto, A. J., Eden, J., Deiss, D. M., Savage, M. W., & Ramos-Salazar, L. (2017). The short-term effects of a cyberbullying prevention interventaion for parents of middle school students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(1038), 1-8. doi:10.3390/ijerph1409103

Sabitha, M. (2008). Bullies at workplace: A case of public sector employees. Jurnal Pengurusan Awam, 7(1), 63 - 80.

Stuart, M. E., & Hand, K. E. (2016). Understanding bullying in the physical education setting: Bystander efficacy. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 87(2), A126. https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/understanding-bullying-physical-education-setting/docview/1817495057/se-2?accountid=13155

Toy, S. R., Mckay, R. R., Eilert, R., & Sandall, J. (2019). Effective and feasible simulation-based procedural training for medical students: Instructional video-guided deliberate practice versus training with expert feedback. Medical Science Educator, 29(1), 35-39.

Watkins, M. (2018). Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Guide to Best Practice. Journal of Black Psychology, 44(3), 219-246. doi:10.1177/0095798418771807

Wolke, D., & Lereya, S. T. (2015). Long-term effects of bullying. Archives of Disease in childhood, 100(9), 879 -885. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306667

Yong, A. G., & Pearce , S. (2103). A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94. doi:10.20982/tqmp.09.2.p079

Yurdugül, H. (2008). Minimum sample size for Cronbach’s coefficient alpha: A Monte-Carlo study. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 35, 397-405.

Downloads

Published

2022-12-16

How to Cite

Shaharuddin, S., Mohd Isa, N. J., Hamzah, M., Mohd Isa, N. K., & Suppian, Z. (2022). Psychometric Assessment of ‘The Need for Instructional Video in Bullying Among Parents’: A Newly Developed Instrument. Evaluation Studies in Social Sciences, 3(2), 62–75. https://doi.org/10.37134/esss.vol3.2.7.2022