The development of an Investigable Questions Formulation Technique (IQFT) in open inquiry learning

Pembangunan Investigable Questions Formulation Technique (IQFT) dalam pembelajaran inkuiri terbuka


  • Norsyazwani Muhamad Dah Sekolah Menengah Agama Repah, Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, MALAYSIA
  • Mohd Syafiq Aiman Mat Noor UCL Institute of Education, University College London, WC1E 6BT London, UNITED KINGDOM



Investigable questions, Problem solving, Inquiry-based learning, Open inquiry, Secondary school science


Investigable questions are a fundamental element in open inquiry learning, which allow pupils to plan and implement an investigation by themselves. However, creating investigable questions is a complex process and requires a systematic approach. Therefore, this action research was conducted in an effort to improve teacher-researcher practice in guiding form one pupils to create their own investigable questions. This paper seeks to answer the following research question: How can teacher-researcher develop the Investigable Questions Formulation Technique (IQFT) in open inquiry learning to guide pupils to create investigable questions? IQFT, as an intervention developed in this study, comprises eight main steps, designed through two cycles, and involving the processes of: (i) planning action, (ii) taking action, (iii) collecting and analysing data and (iv) reflecting. Data collected included unstructured observations, photographs and pupils’ written works. Data were analysed narratively, by describing how teacher-researcher have developed IQFT in an effort of guiding pupils to create investigable questions in open inquiry learning. One of the main lessons teacher-researcher have learned as a result of designing and implementing this study is that the process of guiding pupils to create investigable questions needs to incorporate adequate training for pupils, especially when the teacher introduces new techniques such as IQFT to pupils. In addition, teacher-researcher have realised that a particular educational or pedagogical theory only serves as the basis of a teacher’s knowledge and needs to be adapted and modified according to the teaching context.


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How to Cite

Muhamad Dah, N., & Mat Noor, M. S. A. (2021). The development of an Investigable Questions Formulation Technique (IQFT) in open inquiry learning: Pembangunan Investigable Questions Formulation Technique (IQFT) dalam pembelajaran inkuiri terbuka. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 11(1), 103–120.