The effectiveness of teaching games for understanding to promote enjoyment in teaching games of physical education lesson

  • Zarizi Ab Rahman Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor
  • Azlan Ahmad Kamal Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor
  • Mohd Anizu Mohd Nor Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kampus Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Rozita Ab Latif Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kampus Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
Keywords: Teaching Game for Understanding, enjoyment, Physical Education, teaching method, traditional method


Physical Education is one of the compulsory subjects in primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. The primary goal of Physical Education is to develop students in the aspects of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Teaching and learning of Physical Education should provide more opportunities for students to improve the efficiency of motor skills, movement, and maintaining physical fitness. The teaching and learning process must focus on students' learning to generate understanding, learning, and ' satisfaction. The failure to attract students toward Physical Education may affect the goals of the subject. Enjoyment is a crucial factor underlying exercise motivation and positive participation in both physical activity and Physical Education. 'Students' attitudes toward Physical Education are likely to be linked with their enjoyment in classes. Therefore, to achieve the goals of the subject, it is imperative to create enjoyment in the teaching and learning process. Hence this study to determine the effectiveness of teaching games for understanding to promote enjoyment in teaching games of Physical Education lesson. Eighty students from form Vocational College in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, and one Physical Education teacher agreed to participate in this study. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 42 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 38 students, and experienced a technical-traditional approach. The study design was a quasi-non-equivalent group pre-test and post-test design. A pre- and post-test were performed on each group to assess the influence of the methodology used on students' enjoyment in Physical Education. ANCOVA analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching methods toward student enjoyment in Physical Education. Results revealed that group A showed greater enjoyment in the class than group B. Significant differences were found in enjoyment.





Australian Sports Commission. (2005). Active After-school Communities – Community Coach Training Program. Canberra: ASC.

Barr-Anderson, D. J., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Lytle, L., Schmitz, K. H., Ward, D. S., Conway, T. L., & Pate, R. R. (2008). But I like PE: Factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls. Research Quarterly For Exercise And Sport, 79(1), 18-27.

Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1982). A model for the teaching of games in secondary schools. Bulletin of Physical Education, 18(1), 5-8.

Butler, J., Oslin, J., Mitchell, S., & Griffin, L. (2008). The Way Forward for TGfU: Filling the Chasm between Theory and Practice. Physical & Health Education Journal, 74(1).

Cairney, J., Hay, J., Mandigo, J., Wade, T., Faught, B.E., & Flouris, A. (2007). Developmental coordination disorder and reported enjoyment of physical education in children. European Physical Education Review,13 (1), 81–98.

Carroll, B. & Loumidis, J. (2001). Children’s perceived competence and enjoyment in physical education and physical activity outside school. European Physical Education Review, 7(1), 24–43.

Chen, W., & Hypnar, A. J. (2015). Elementary school students’ self-determination in physical education and attitudes toward physical activity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(2), 189-209.

Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., Shuttleworth, R., Renshaw, I., & Araujo, D. (2007). The role of nonlinear pedagogy in Physical Education. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 251-278.

Coulter, M., & Ní Chroinin, D. (2011). What is PE? Sport, education and society. Sport, Education and Society, 18(6), 825-841.

Dishman, R., Motl, R., Saunders, R., Felton, G., Ward, D., & Pate, R. (2005). Enjoyment mediates the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention among adolescent girls. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37, 478-487.

Ewing, M.E., & Seefeldt, V. (1988). American Youth and Sports Participation. North Palm Beach, FL: American Footwear Association.

Fairclough, S. J., & Stratton, G. (2006). A review of physical activity levels during elementary school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 25(2), 240-258.

Foster, K. E., Behrens, T. K., Jager, A. L., & Dzewaltowski, D. A. (2010). Effect of elimination games on physical activity and psychosocial responses in children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(4), 475-483.

Goudas, M., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1993). Pupil perceptions of enjoyment in physical education. Physical Education Review, 16(2), 145-150.

Griffin, L., & Sheeny, D. A. (2004). Using the tactical games model to develop problem-solvers in physical education. Critical Inquiry and Problem Solving in Physical Education: Working With Students in Schools, 33-48.

Harvey, S., Song, Y., Baek, J. H., & Van Der Mars, H. (2016). Two sides of the same coin: Student physical activity levels during a game-centred soccer unit. European Physical Education Review, 22(4), 411-429.

Hashim, H. A., Grove, J. R., & Whipp, P. (2008a). Validating the youth sport enjoyment construct in high school physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79, 183-194.

Kiat, L. B., Halim, N. D. A., & Ibrahim, H. B. (2015). Issues and future trends in teaching physical education: A preliminary study. In 2015 IEEE Conference on e-Learning, e-Management and e-Services (IC3e) (pp. 75-80). IEEE.

Light, R. (2003). The joy of learning: Emotion and learning in games through TGfU. Journal of Physical Education New Zealand, 36(1), 93-99.

MacPhail, A., Gorely, T., Kirk, D., & Kinchin, G. (2008). Children's experiences of fun and enjoyment during a season of sport education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(3), 344-355.

Martin, A., & Gaskin, C. (2004). An integrated physical education model. Journal of Physical Education New Zealand, 37(1), 61-69.

Mckeen, K., Webb, P. I. & Pearson, P. J. (2007). Promoting physical activity through teaching games for understanding in undergraduate teacher education. In J. A. Diniz (Eds.), AIESEP 2005 World Congress

Metzler, M., W. (2005). Instructional Models for Physical Education (2nd ed.) Tempe, AZ: Holcomb-Hathaway.

Mezler, M.W. (2000). Instructional Models for Physical Education. Boston, MA: Allyn and Motl, R., Dishman, R., Saunders, R., Dowda, M., Felton, G. and Pate, R. (2001) ‘Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21(2) 110-117.

O’Leary, N. (2016). Learning informally to use the ‘full version’of teaching games for understanding. European Physical Education Review, 22(1), 3-22.

Phillips, S. R., & Silverman, S. (2015). Upper elementary school student attitudes toward physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(3), 461-473.

Prochaska, J., J.F. Sallis, D.J. Slymen, and T.L. McKenzie. (2003). A longitudinal study of children’s enjoyment of physical education. Pediatric Exercise Science 15, 170– 178.

Rengasamy, S. (2006). “The Current Status of Teaching Cardiovascular Endurance among Malaysian School Children: Theory and Practice” in Masalah Pendidikan, 29, 91-101.

Renshaw, I., Araújo, D., Button, C., Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., & Moy, B. (2016). Why the constraints-led approach is not teaching games for understanding: A clarification. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(5), 459-480.

Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J. and Taylor, W. C. (2000) A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 963 – 975.

Scanlan, T.K. and Simmons, J.P. (1992) The Construct of Sport Enjoyment. In: Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Ed: Roberts, G.C. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaludin Ahmad. (2005). Pembinaan Modul: Bagaimana Membina Modul Latihan dan Modul Akademik. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Smith, M. A., & Pierre, P.E. (2009). Secondary students' perceptions of enjoyment in physical education: An American and English Perspective. Phys Educ, 66 (4).

Subramaniam, P. R., & Silverman, S. (2007). Middle school students’ attitudes toward physical education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(5), 602-611.

Subramaniam, P., and S. Silverman. (2002). Using complimentary data: An investigation of student attitude in physical education. Journal of Sport Pedagogy 8: 74–91.

Thomas, K. (1997). Game Sense Workshops; Research Project. Unpublished Papers: The University of Newcastle, May 1997. Undertaken for the Australian Sports Commission.

Wee, E.H. (2001). “Attitude of Physical Education Teachers towards Physical Education and Implementation of Physical Education Program in Secondary School”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya.

Wee, E.H. (2008). “Physical Education in Malaysia: A Case Study of Fitness Activity in Secondary School Physical Education Classes”. Paper presented in the Conference on Innovative Practices in Physical Education and sports in Asia, organized by UNESCO in Bangkok, Thailand, pp.22-43

Werner, P., Thorpe, R., & Bunker, D. (1996). Teaching games for understanding: evolution of a model. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 67(1)

Werner, P., Thorpe, R., & Bunker, D. (1996). Teaching games for understanding: Evolution of a model. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 67(1), 28-33.

Wirszyla, C. (2002). State-mandated curriculum change in three high school physical education programs. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(1), 4-19.

Woods, C. B., Tannehill, D., & Walsh, J. (2012). An examination of the relationship between enjoyment, physical education, physical activity and health in Irish adolescents. Irish Educational Studies, 31(3), 263-280.

Wright, P. M., Li, W., & Ding, S. (2007). Relations of perceived motivational climate and feelings of belonging in physical education in urban schools. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105(2), 386-390.

Yli-Piipari, S., Watt, A., Jaakkola, T., Liukkonen, J. and Nurmi, J-E. (2009) Relationships between physical education students’ motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self reported physical activity. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 327-336.
How to Cite
Ab Rahman, Z., Kamal, A. A., Mohd Nor, M. A., & Ab Latif, R. (2020). The effectiveness of teaching games for understanding to promote enjoyment in teaching games of physical education lesson. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 9(1), 23-32.