Determinants of Integrity in the Implementation of Performance Appraisal System (PAS): The Case of Malaysia Enforcement Agency

  • Norhaslinda Jamaiudin International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Keywords: Performance Appraisal System, Pay-for-Performance, Justice, Integrity and Ethics


This study aims to measure the determinants of integrity of Performance Appraisal System (PAS) in Malaysia’s Public Sector. It focuses on the implementation of PAS in one of the enforcement agencies in Malaysia. Introduced in 2002 under the Malaysian Remuneration System (MRS), the PAS played an important role in pay-for performance. Employees’ performance and competency were measured to determine their eligibility for salary increment and promotion. Since inception, the implementation of appraisal system was inundated with criticisms due to poor implementation, inappropriate method of assessment and unjust distribution of rewards. Such apprehension had raised concern on integrity of PAS. Guided by organizational justice and work character ethics theories, the study aims to explore the determinants of integrity in PAS. A structured questionnaire was developed and a total of 412 of useable questionnaires were used in data analysis. The research findings disclosed that procedural, distributive, interactional justice and work character ethics are positively correlated with integrity of PAS. Regression analysis shows that interactional justice and work character ethics are the strongest predictors that influence the integrity of PAS with 45.6 and 45.4 percent of the total variability in integrity can be accounted for by these two variables. The significant relationship between variables indicates that the erosion of integrity in PAS can be attributed to poor behavioral and meager structural of performance appraisal system. Strategic and effective measures therefore are pivotal to elevate integrity in the practice of appraisal system in the context of MPS.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguinis,H. (2007). Performance management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Ambrose,M.L., Hess, R,L., & Ganesan, S.(2007).The relationship between justice &attitudes: An examination of justice effects on event and system-related attitudes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,103, 21-36.

Appelbaum, S.H., & Mackenzie,L. (1996). Compensation in the year 2000: Pay for performance? Journal of Health Manpower Management, 22(3), 31-39.

Arif Hassan &Junaidah Hashim. (2011). Role of organisational justice in determining work outcomes of national and expatriate academic in Malaysia. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 21(1), 82-93.

Babbie, E. (1999). The basics of social research. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Babbie, E. (2002). The basics of social research (2nded.). Australia: Wadsworth

Bacal, R. (1999). Performance management. New York: McGraw-Hill

Beauchamp, T. L., & Bowie, N. E. (Eds).(2001). Ethical theory and business (6thed.).New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Bies, R.J., & Shapiro, D.L. (1987). Interactional fairness judgements: The influence Of causal accounts .Social Justice Research, 1 (2), 199-218.

Bies, R.J. (1993). Organizational justice research in the 1990s: Moving in new directions. Social Justice Research, 6 (1), 1-4.

Birsch, D. (2002). Ethical insights: A brief introduction(2nded.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Blader, S.L.,& Tyler, T.R. (2003). What constitutes fairness in work setting? A Four-component model of procedural justice.Human Resource Management Review, 13, 107-126.

Blaikie,N. (2003). Analyzing quantitative data.London:Sage Publications.

Boyd, N., & Kyle, K (2004). Expanding the view of performance appraisal by Introducing social justice concerns. Administrative Theory and Practice, 26 (3), 249-278.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-10

Brown, M., Hyatt, D., & Benson,J. (2010). Consequences of the performance appraisal experience. Personnel Review, 39 (3), 375-396.

Bruijn, H. D. (2002). Performance measurement in the public sector: Strategies to cope with the risks of performance measurement. International Journal of public Sector Management, 15 (7), 578-594.

Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (1999). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for windows: A guide for social scientists. London: Routledge.

Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2001). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 10 for windows: A guide for social scientists. London: Routledge.

Coens, J., & Jenkins, M. (2000). Abolishing performance appraisal: What they backed and what to do instead. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Cook, M. (1995). Performance appraisal and true performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(7), 3-7.

Cohen, L., & Holliday, M. (1982). Statistics for Social Sciences. London: Harper and Row.

Cohen-Charash, Y., & Specotr, P.E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86 (2),278-321.

Colquitt, J.A. (2001). On the dimensonality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (3), 386-400.

Colquitt, J.A., Conlon, D.E., Wesson, M.J., Porter, C.O.L.H., & Ng,K.Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analysis review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (3), 425-445.

Costelli, S.J. (1994). Effective performance management. New York: Irwin/Mirror press.

Creswell, J.W., & Clark, V.L.P. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.). London: Sage publication.

Dev Kumar. (2005). Performance appraisal: The importance of rater training. Journal of the Kuala Lumpur Royal Malaysian Police College, No.4, 1-17.

Erdogan, B. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in Performance appraisals. Human Resource Management Review.12, 555-578.

Farndale,E., Hailey, V.H., &Kelliher, C. (2011). High commitment performance management: The roles of justice and trust. Personnel Review, 40 (1), 5-23.

Field, A., Miles, J., & Field, Z. (2013). Discovering statistics using R. London: Sage Publication.

Fletcher, C. (1998). Performance management: Perspectives on employees performance. London: International Thomson business

Fryer,K., Antony, J., &Ogden,S. (2009). Performance management in the public sector. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 22 (6), 477-498.

George, D., & Mallery, D. (1991).SPSS/PCT step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing.

Government of Malaysia. (2004). National Integrity Plan (NIP). Malaysia: Integrity Institute of Malaysia (IIOM)

Gerrish, Ed. (2016). The Impact of Performance Management on Performance in Public Organizations: A Meta-Analysis. Public Administration Review, 76 (1), 48-66.

Greenberg, J. (1990). Organisational justice: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16 (2), 399-432.

Greenberg, J. (2003). Creating unfairness by mandating fair procedures: The hidden hazards of pay for performance plan. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 41-57.

Greenberg,J. (2004). Stess fairness to fare no stress: Managing workplace stress by promotingorganisational justice. Organizational Dynamics, 33 (4), 352-365.

Halim bin Shafie. (1996). Malaysia’s experience in implementing the new performance appraisal system. Public Administration and Development, Vol. 16, 341-352.

Haslinda Abdullah & Abraham, K.G. (2012). Perception on the performance appraisal system among Malaysian diplomatic officer. The Social Sciences, 7 (3), 486-495.

Hosmer, L, R. (2003). The ethics of management (4thed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam (JPA). (2002). Pekeliling perkhidmatan bilangan 4 Tahun 2002, Pelaksanaan sistem saraan malaysia bagi anggota perkhidmatan awam persekutuan.Retrieved from

Ilgen, D.R., Fisher, C.D., & Taylor, M.S. (1979). Consequences of individual feedback on behaviour in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology. 64 (4), 349-371.

Kaplan, M. (1987). Basic statistics for the behavioural sciences. Allyn and Bacon: London.

Kelly, K,O., Angela,S,Y., & Chong, W. L. (2008). Teacher appraisal and its outcome in Singapore primary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 46 (1), 39-54.

Kim, P. S. (2002). Strengthening the pay performance link in government: A case study of Korea. Public Personnel Management, 31 (4), 447-464.

Leete,L. (2000). Wage equity and employee motivation in non-profit and for profit organizations. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol.43, 423-446.

Longenecker, C.O. (1997). Why managerial performance appraisals are ineffective: Causes and lesseons. Career Development International, 2 (5), 212-218

Maley, J. (2013). Hybrid purposes of performance appraisal in a crisis. Journal of Management Development, 32(10), 1093-1112.

Mazlan Ismail. (2012). Antecedents and outcomes of job satisfaction among Royal Malaysian Police officers: A study at Contingent Police involved with the national key result areas (NKRA) programme. Unpublished master dissertation. University of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur

Mortimore, P., & Mortimore, J. (1991). Teacher appraisal: Back to the future. School Organization, 11 (2), 125-143.

Monga, M. (2016). Integrity and its antecedents: A unified conceptual framework of Integrity. Journal of Developing Area, 50 (5).

Mhlolo, M.k. (2014). Performance Appraisal System: Equity perceptions of Matehmatics Teachers, an Exploratory Study. Journal of Pscychology in Africa, 24(6), 487-491.

Nachmias, C., &Nachmias, D. (1981).Research methods in the social sciences (2nded.). New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Neha, P. S, Tnuja, S&Madhushree,N.A. (2016). Measuring employee perception of performance management system effectiveness. Employee Relations, 38 (2), 224-247.

Newman, K.L. (1993). Procedural justice and ethical decision.Social Justice Research, 6 (1), 113-134.

Nigro, L., Nigro, F., & Kellough, J. E. (2007). The new public personnel administration(6thed.). Australia: Thomas Wadsworth.

Noreha Hashim. (2007). Memartabatkan integrity dalam penilaian prestasi penjawat Awam di bawah SSM: Isu dan cabaran. Pulau Pinang: USM Unit Latihan.

NorhaslindaJamaiudin. (2012). Strengthening the pay-performance link in government. UK:Lap Lambert Academic Publishing

Norusis, M.J. (1987). The SPSS guide to data analysis. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

Ohemeng, F. (2010). The dangers of internalization and “one-size-fits-all” in public sector management. Lesson from performance management policies in Ontario and Ghana.International Journal of Public Sector Management. 23(5), 456-478.

Petrick, J. A., & Quinn, J. F. (1997). Management ethics integrity at work. London: Sage Publications.

Perkins, S.J. (2018). Processing developments in employee performance and rewards. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness People and Performance, 5(3), 289-300.

Pratt, B., & Loizos, P. (1992). Choosing research methods: Data collection for developmental workers. Development Guidelines. No.7. London: Oxfam.

Pucetaik,R., Lamsa, A. M., &Novelskaite, A. (2010). Building organizational trust in a low-trust societal context. Baltic Journal of Management, 5 (2), 197-217.

Radnor, Z. (2004). Performance management in the public sector: Fact of fiction? International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53 (3), 245-260.

Rumold, A.K. (2010). An examination of the relationship between a climate for justice and organizational outcome. United States of America: UMI Dissertation Publishing.

Rusli Ahmad. (2012a). Persepsipekerjaterhadapperlaksanaan system penilaianprestasi di sektor perkhidmatan pendidikan Malaysia. In Rusli Ahmad &Shamsiyah Shamsudin., (Eds.). Formula kecermerlangan bekerja dan penilaian prestasi berkesan (pp. 151-164) UNIMAS: Sarawak.

Rusli Ahmad. (2012b). Pengukurantahapkecekapanpekerjasektorawam di Malaysia: Refleksi dan gagasan berdasarkan perlaksanaan komponen peperiksaan dalam PTK. In Rusli Ahmad &ShamsiyahShamsudin., (Eds.). Formula kecermerlangan bekerja dan penilaian prestasi berkesan (pp. 231-245). UNIMAS: Sarawak.

Rusli Ahmad. (2012b). Sistem saran dalam sector perkhidmatan awam Malaysia dan persepsi pekerja terhadap amalan system pemprosesan makluma tkognitif. In Rusli Ahmad &ShamsiyahShamsudin., (Eds.). Formula kecermerlangan bekerja dan penilaianprestasiberkesan (pp. 142-150). UNIMAS: Sarawak.

Rusli Ahmad & Nur Azman Ali. (2004). Performance appraisal decision in Malaysian public service.International Journal of Public Sector Management, 17(1), 48-64.

Rusli Ahmad &SurenaSabil. (2012). Pemahaman pekerja terhadap konsep penilaian tahap kecekapan dalam SSM: Satu dapatan awal kajian. In Rusli Ahmad & Shamsiyah Shamsudin., (Eds.). Formula kecermerlangan bekerja dan penilaian prestasi berkesan (pp. 216-230). UNIMAS: Sarawak.

Savarimothu, T. (2004, October 22nd). One competency is enough, says CUEPACs. Bernama. Retreived from

Scholtes.P.R. (1990). An elaboration on deming’s teaching on performance appraisal in Performance Appraisal. InMclean, G.N., Damme, S.R., Swanson, R.A. (Eds.), Perspective on an quality management approach (pp 24- 52).US: American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Sheppard, B, H., Lewicki, R,J., & Minton, J.W. (1992). Organizational justice: The search for fairness in the workplace. New York: Lexington Books.

Shukran Abdul Rahman. (2006). Attitudes of Malaysian teachers toward a performance-appraisal system. Journal of Applied Psychology, 36 (12), 3031-3042.

Siddiquee, N.A. (2010). Managing for results; Lessons from public management reform in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19 (1), 38-53.

Siddiquee,N.A. (2006). Public management reform in Malaysia: Recent initiatives and experiences. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19 (4), Sillup,G.P., and Klimberg, R. (2010). Assessing the ethics of implementing performance appraisal systems. Journal of Management Development. 29 (1),38-55.

Singer, M.S. (2000). Ethical and fair work behaviour: A normative-empirical dialogue concerning ethics and justice. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol.28, 187-209. 339-358

Skarlicki, D.P., & Folger, R. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The role of distributive justice,procedural and interactional justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 434-443.

Slyvia, R.D., & Meyer, C.K. (2002). Public Personnel Adminsitration (2nded.). Philadelphia: Harcourt College Publishers.

Spencer, L.M., & Spencer, S.M. (1993). Competence at work. New York: John Wiley &Sons.

Svenson, G., & Wood, G. (2011). A conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizational, structure, process and performance. The Learning Organization, 18 (1), 21-35.

Teddlie, C., &Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research. Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioural sciences. Los Angeles: Sage Publication.

Thurstun, Jr.P.W., & McNall,L. (2010). Justice perception of performance appraisal practices. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 (3), 201-228.

Tuytens, M & Devos, G. (2012). Importance of system and leadership in performance appraisal. Personnel Review, 41(6),756-776.

Uma Sekaran & Bougie, R. (2009). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (5th Ed.).John Wiley and Sons, inc.

Verbeeten, F. H. M. (2008). Performance management practices in public sector organizations: Impact on performance. Journal Accounting, Auditing and Accountability, 21 (3), 427-454.

Verhezen, P. (2008). The (Ir)relevance of integrity in organizations. Public Integrity. 10 (2), 133-149.

Westover, J.H., & Taylor, J. (2010). The effects of public service motivation, rewards and work relations. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 59 (8), 811-828.

Williams, G. J. (1992). Ethics in modern management. New York: Quorum Books.

Winstanley, D., & Smith, K.S. (1996). Policing performance: The ethics of performance management. Personnel Review, 25 (6), 66-84.

Winstanley, D., & Woodwall, J. (Ed). (2000). Ethical issues in contemporary human resource management. London: MacMillan Business.

Zhou, Y., Zhang, Y.Y.,& Sanchez, A.M. (2011). Utilitarianism or romanticisim: The effects of rewards on employees’ innovative behaviour. International Journal of Manpower, 32(1), 81-98.

How to Cite
Jamaiudin, N. (2021). Determinants of Integrity in the Implementation of Performance Appraisal System (PAS): The Case of Malaysia Enforcement Agency. Management Research Journal, 10(1), 24-41.