Effective Professional Development Model Increases the Competence of Vocational Teachers

Model Pembangunan Profesional Efektif Meningkatkan Kompetensi Guru Vokasional


  • Isnormaniza Ithnain Jabatan Perniagaan, Kolej Vokasional Kangar Perlis, MALAYSIA




Teacher Competence, Professional Development, Vocational Technical Education and Training (PLTV)


Competent vocational teachers are the backbone of effective teaching and learning in Vocational Technical Education and Training (PLTV). Effective professional development can ensure that teachers' knowledge and skills are at the required standard. This study identifies the relationship between effective professional development and vocational teacher competence and the elements of effective professional development that are the main predictors of vocational teacher competence. This study is a cross-sectional survey involving 137 school teachers selected through multi-level sampling in one of the states in Malaysia. The findings of the study show a significant positive relationship between effective professional development and the competence of vocational teachers. An extended analysis of the elements of effective professional development shows that the elements of active learning in the classroom, focus on teaching content, collective involvement and coherence are significant predictors of vocational teacher competence. The results of this study are important to the parties concerned, including school administrators, vocational teacher training providers, the Vocational Technical Education and Training Division (BPLTV), and vocational teachers in designing effective professional development programs that can increase the competence of vocational teachers to a standard set. This is in line with the government's policy planning to make the Teacher Professionalism Development Plan part of the method of improving the quality of teachers from the aspects of knowledge, skills, and professionalism.


Download data is not yet available.


Andersson, P., & Köpsén, S. (2019). VET teachers between school and working life: Boundary processes enabling continuing professional development. Journal of Education and Work, 1–15. doi:10.1080/13639080. 2019. 1673888

Bada, H. A., Tengku Ariffin, T.F., & Nordin, H. (2020). The effectiveness of teachers in Nigerian secondary schools: The role of instructional leadership of principals. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1–28. doi:10.1080/13603124.2020.1811899

Bautista, A., Wong, J., & Gopinathan, S. (2015). Teacher professional development in Singapore: Depicting the landscape. Psychology, Society, & Education, 7(3), 311-326. Diperoleh daripada https://repository. nie.edu.sg/ bitstream/10497/18171/1/PSE-7-3-311.pdf

Bautista, A., Yau, X., & Wong, J. (2017). High-quality music teacher professional development: A review of the literature. Music Education Research, 19(4), 455-469. https://doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2016.1249357

Boahin, P., & Hofman, W. H. A. (2014). Perceived effects of competency-based training on the acquisition of professional skills. International Journal of Educational Development, 36, 81–89. doi.org/10.1016/j. ijedudev.2013.11.003

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3-15.

Chinedu, C. C., Wan Mohamed, W. A., & Ajah, A. O. (2018). A systematic review on education for sustainable development: Enhancing TVE teacher training programme. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 10(1). Diperoleh daripada https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTET/article/view/ 1678

Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181– 199. doi:10.3102/0013189x08 331140

Diep, P.C., & Hartmann, M. (2016). Green skills in vocational teacher education – A model of pedagogical competence for a world of sustainable development. TVET@Asia, 6, 1-19. Diperoleh daripada http://tvet-online.asia/issue/6/diep-hartmann

Fejes, A., & Kopsen, S. (2012). Vocational teachers’ identity formation through boundary crossing. Journal of Education and Work, 27(3), 265–283. doi:10.1080/13639080.2012.742181

Gore, J., Lloyd, A., Smith, M., Bowe, J., Ellis, H., & Lubans, D. (2017). Effects of professional development on the quality of teaching: Results from a randomised controlled trial of Quality Teaching Rounds. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68, 99-113.

Hauge, K. (2019). Teachers’ collective professional development in school: A review study. Cogent Education, 6: 1619223.doi:10.1080/2331186X.2019.1619223

Hiew, W., & Murray, J. (2018). Issues with effective design of an ESL teacher professional development programme in Sabah, Malaysia. Manu: Jurnal Pusat Penataran Ilmu dan Bahasa (PPIB), 51 - 76. Diperoleh daripada https://doi.org/10.51200/manu.v0i0.1582

Hoekstra, A., Kuntz, J., & Newton, P. (2018). Professional learning of instructors in vocational and professional education. Professional Development in Education, 44(2), 237-253. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2017.12805 23

Ismail, K., Nopiah, Z. M., Rasul, M. S., & Leong, P. C. (2017). Malaysian teachers’ competency in technical vocational education and training: A review. In Abdullah et al. (Eds.), Regionalization and Harmonization in TVET. London: Taylor & Francis Group

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Junita Sulaiman & Wan Mohd Rashid Wan Ahmad. (2018). Kompetensi dalam menentukan profesionalisme guru vokasional di Malaysia: Cabaran ke arah pembangunan profesionalisme guru TVET. Online Journal for TVET practitioners: Multidisciplinary Research in Education, 3(special issue), 13-18. Diperoleh daripada https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/oj-tp/article/view/4794

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2018). Laporan Tahunan 2017: Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025. Putrajaya: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

Kennedy, M. M. (2016). How does professional development improve teaching? Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 945–980. doi:10.3102/0034654315626800

Khan, S., & Abdullah, N. (2019). The impact of staff training and development on teachers’ productivity. Economics, Management and Sustainability, 4(1), 37-45. doi:10.14254/jems.2019.4-1.4

Kopsen, S. (2014). How vocational teachers describe their vocational teacher identity. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 66(2), 194-21. doi:10.1080/13636820.2014.894554

Kopsen, S. & Andersson, P. (2018). Boundary processes in connection with students’ workplace learning: Potentials for VET teachers’ continuing professional development. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training (NJVET), 8(1), 58–75. Diperoleh daripada https://njvet.ep.liu.se/article/view/ 276

Kyriakides, L., Christoforidou, M., Panayiotou, A., & Creemers, B.P.M. (2017). The impact of a three-year teacher professional development course on quality of teaching: Strengths and limitations of the dynamic approach. European Journal of Teacher Education, 1-22. doi: 10.1080/02619768.2017.1349093

Mohd Hashim, M. H., & Abubakar, B. (2017). The availability of electronic courses using ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning among teachers in Nigeria's TVET institutions. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 25 (Special issue). 17 – 28.

Opfer, V. D., & Pedder, D. (2011). Conceptualizing teacher professional learning. Review of Educational Research, 81(3), 376–407. doi:10.3102/0034654311413609

Phin, C. (2014). Teacher competence and teacher quality in Cambodia’s educational context linked to in-service teacher training. An examination based on a questionnaire survey. International journal of educational administration and policy studies, 6(4), 62-69. doi:10.5897/IJEAPS2013.0326.

Ramli Bakar. (2018). The influence of professional teachers on Padang Vocational School students’ achievement. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39, 67-72. Diperoleh daripada https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss. 2017. 12.017

Ronfeldt, M., Farmer, S. O., McQueen, K., & Grissom, J. A. (2015). Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 52(3), 475– 514. doi:10.3102/ 0002831215585562

Salwati Shafee, Simin Ghavifekr & Zuraidah Abdullah. (2019). Leadership role of coaches in improving teachers’ instructional practices. MOJEM: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 7(1), 92-112.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (7th ed.). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Soine, K. M., & Lumpe, A. (2014). Measuring characteristics of teacher professional development. Teacher Development, 18(3), 303–333. doi:10.1080/13664530.2014.911775

Stanton, K., Cawthon, S., & Dawson, K. (2017). Self-efficacy, teacher concerns, and levels of implementation among teachers participating in drama-based instruction professional development. Teacher Development, 22(1), 51–77. doi:10.1080/13664530.2017.1308430

Tran, L. T., & Pasura, R. (2020). The nature of teacher professional development in Australian International Vocational Education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 1–14. doi:10.1080/ 0309877x.2019. 1702153

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2017). Education for sustainable development goals: Learning objectives. Diperoleh daripada https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/ pf0000247444

Visnovska, J., & Cobb, P. (2015). Learning about whole-class scaffolding from a teacher professional development study. ZDM Mathematics Education, 47, 1133–1145. doi:10.1007/s11858-015-0739-7

Wilson, P. H., Sztajn, P., Edington, C., Webb, J., & Myers, M. (2017). Change in teachers´ discourse about students in a professional development on learning trajectories. American Educational Research Journal, 54(3), 568–604. doi:10.3102/0002831217693801

Zorkic, T.J., & Jovanovic, V. (2020). Constructivist beliefs and teaching practices in different school environments. Malta Review of Educational Research, 14 (Supplement Issue), 13-26.



How to Cite

Ithnain, I. (2022). Effective Professional Development Model Increases the Competence of Vocational Teachers: Model Pembangunan Profesional Efektif Meningkatkan Kompetensi Guru Vokasional . Management Research Journal, 11(2), 52–63. https://doi.org/10.37134/mrj.vol11.2.5.2022