Coronavirus (COVID-19): Density risk mapping using Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010

Coronavirus (COVID-19): Pemetaan risiko kepadatan menggunakan data Banci Penduduk dan Perumahan Malaysia 2010

  • Yaakub Nur Faziera Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities , Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities , Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Epa Ailis Elizabeth Department of Geography, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Chabo Danggat Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities , Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities , Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Masron Tarmiji Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities , Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities , Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
Keywords: Aging population, population density, different age groups, census, COVID-19, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) & risk mapping

Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered severe and contagious disease. Due to its seriousness, the rapid spread of the virus has awakened worldwide attention in a short time. Due to the scarcity of effective treatment options for the rising positive cases worldwide, the risk of COVID-19 is observed serious for the infected persons with chronic diseases as well as vulnerable populations including infants and aging groups. By applying the spatial-based solution tool of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this paper aims to localize the spatial distribution of cumulative COVID-19 cases and the density of different age groups of all districts for both West and East Malaysia. The non-spatial data used in this research paper were the cumulative number of COVID-19 positive cases on 25th of January, 15th of February, 21st of March, 31st of March, 14th of April & 12th of May 2020 and the total number of population in Malaysia sourced from Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. The population was divided into three (3) different age groups. The three (3) age groups indicate the level of population density of a district. While the spatial data were district boundaries across Malaysia. The results geovisualized that big cities with a high density of population such as the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Petaling, Johor Bahru, Kuching, Miri, Sibu and Kota Kinabalu experienced a high number of COVID-19 positive cases.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Boulos, M. N. K & Geraghty, E. M. (2020) Geographical tracking and mapping of coronavirus disease COVID-19/severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic and associated events around the world: how 21st century GIS technologies are supporting the global fight against outbreaks and epidemics. International Journal Health Geographics, 19(8), 1-12.

Busiai, S. and Tarmiji, M. (2019). Hotspot Analysis of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Using GIS in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(2), 36-44.

Chen, Z. L., Zhang, Q., Lu, Y., Guo, Z. –M., Zhang, X., Zhang, W. –J., Guo, C., Liao, C. –H., Li, Q. –L., Han, X. –H., Lu, J. –H. (2020). Distribution of the COVID-19 Epidemic and Correlation with Population Emigration from Wuhan, China. Chinese Medical Journal.
DOI: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000782

Dhama, K., Khan, S., Tiwari, R., Sircar, S., Bhat, S., Malik, Y. S., Singh, K. P., Chaicumpa, W., Bonilla-Aldana, D. K. & Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 – COVID-19.
DOI: 10.20944/preprints202003.0001.v2

ESRI (2020). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

Fatemeh, S. and Leila, A. (2017). The Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) In Identifying the Priority Areas for Maternal Care and Services. Health Services Research, 17(482), 1-8.

Gennaro, F. D., Pizzol, D., Marotta, C., Antunes, M., Racalbuto, V., Veronese, N. and Smith, L. (2020). Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) Current Status and Future Perspectives: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2690), 1-11.

Hackoum, E. W. & Abdallah, A. T. M. (2020). Analysis of Covid-19 Outbreak Using Multispectral-Near Real-Time Satellites Surveillance.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28693.27360

Hamidi, S., Sabouri, S. and Ewing, R. (2020). Does Density Aggravate the COVID-19 Pandemic? Journal of the American Planning Association, 1-15.
DOI: 10.1080/01944363.2020.1777891

Jella, T. K., Acuña, A. J., Samuel, L. T., Jella,T. K., Mroz, T. E. and Kamath, A. F. (2020). Geospatial Mapping of Orthopaedic Surgeons Age 60 and Over and Confirmed Cases of COVID-19. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00577

Jubit, N., Masron, T. and Marzuki, A. (2020). Spatial Pattern of Residential Burglary. The Case Study: Kuching, Sarawak. Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 18(3), 190 – 201.

Kang, D., Choi, H., Kim, J. H. & Choi, J. (2020). Spatial Epidemic Dynamics of the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 94(2020), 96 – 102.

Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM). (2020).

Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 25 Januari 2020 – Pengesanan Kes Baharu yang Disahkan Dijangkiti 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) di Malaysia. [cited March 2020]. Available from:
https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/01/25/ kenyataan-akhbar-kpk-25-januari-2020-pengesanan-kes-baharu-yangdisahkan-dijangkiti-2019-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-di-malaysia/.

Kenyataan Akhbar YBMK 17 Mac 2020 – Situasi Semasa Jangkitan Penyakit Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) di Malaysia. [cited March 2020]. Available from:
https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/03/17/kenyataan-akhbarybmk-17-mac-2020-situasi-semasa-jangkitan-penyakit-coronavirus-2019- covid-19-di-malaysia/.

Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 1 Februari 2020 – Situasi Terkini Jangkitan 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) di Malaysia. [cited March 2020]. Available from:
https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/02/01/kenyataan-akhbarkpk-1-februari-2020-situasi-terkini-jangkitan-2019-novel-coronavirus2019-ncov-di-malaysia/.

Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 9 Februari 2020 – Situasi Terkini Jangkitan 2019- nCoV dan Pengesanan Kes Baharu di Malaysia. [cited March 2020]. Available from:
https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/02/09/kenyataan-akhbarkpk-9-februari-2020-situasi-terkini-jangkitan-2019-ncov-danpengesanan-kes-baharu-di-malaysia/.

Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 15 Februari 2020 – Situasi Terkini Jangkitan COVID-19 dan Pengesanan Kes Baharu Ke-22 di Malaysia. [cited March 2020]. Available from:
https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/02/15/kenyataanakhbar-kpk-15-februari-2020-situasi-terkini-jangkitan-covid-19-danpengesanan-kes-baharu-ke-22-di-malaysia/.

Maxwell, D. N., Trish, M. P., & Cutrell, J. B. (2020). “The Art of War” in the Era of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical Infectious Diseases.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa229

Mclafferty, S. (2003). GIS and healthcare, Annual Review of Public Health 24(1), 25-42.

Minetto, R., Segundo, M. P., Rotich, G. and Sarkar, S. (2020). Measuring Human and Economic Activity from Satellite Imagery to Support City-Scale Decision-Making During COVID-19 Pandemic.

Mohd Norarshad, N. and Tarmiji, M. (2016). Analisis Ruangan Hotspot Penyalahgunaan Dadah di Malaysia: Kajian Kes Daerah Timur Laut, Pulau Pinang. GEOGRAFIA Online Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(5), 74 – 82.

Musa, G. J., Chiang, P. –H., Sylk, T., Bavley, R., Keating, W., Lakew, B., Tsou, H. –H., and Christina W. Hoven, C.W. (2013). Use of GIS Mapping as a Public Health Tool—From Cholera to Cancer. Health Services Insights, 6, HSI.S10471.

Singh, J. K., Yadav, K. K., Gupta, N. and Kumar, V. (June 2016). Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) and Its Application in Various Fields. National Conference on Energy and Environment: Threats and Remedies, RJIT Tekanpur, Gwalior. Available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312577535_Remote_Sensing_and_Geographical_Information_System_GIS_and_Its_Application_in_Various_Fields

Snow, J. (1855). On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. London: John Churchill, New Burlington Street.

Ruslam Rainis, Noresah Mohd Shariff dan Tarmiji Masron. (2006). Perubahan Konsentrasi Ruangan Penduduk di semenanjung Malaysia 1980-2000 dalam Malaysian Journal of Society and space. Vol.2 Issue 1(31-42).

Suleman, S., Rida, W., Sahar, S and Aisha, K. (2020). COVID-19 Challenges to Pakistan: Is GIS Analysis Useful to Draw Solutions? Science of the Total Environment, 730(2020), 1-7.

Tang, T., Huipeng, L., Gifty, M., Zaisheng, W., Weibin, C., Dan, W. and Rongbin, Y. (2020). The Changing Patterns of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Tempogeographic Analysis of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Epidemic. Clinical Infectious Diseases Major Article, 71(15), 818–24.
DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa423

Tarmiji Masron, Danggat Chabo, Nur Faziera Yaakub, Ailis Elizabeth Epa, Ahmad Hata Rasit, Mohd Suhaidi Salleh, Shahrizal Hashim, Mohd Hairulnizam Mohd Zamri. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Post-Control Study of University Students: Case Study of Spatial Distribution of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) Students and National COVID-19 Cases. Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak.

Tarmiji Masron, Hassan Naziri Khalid, Nur Faziera Yaakub, Siti Khatijah Zamhari and Fujimaki Masami. (2019). Tin Mining Activities and Sustainability of Mining-Based Cities in Peninsular Malaysia. The Journal of Ritsumeikan Geographical Society, 31, 27-51.

Tarmiji Masron, Wan Muhammad Taufik Wan Hussin, Mohd Norarshad Nordin, Nur Faziera Yaakub and Mohd Azizul Hafiz Jamian. (2018). Applying GIS in Analysing Black Spot Areas in Penang, Malaysia. Indonesian Journal of Geography 50(2), 133-144.

Unhale, S. S., Ansar, Q. B., Sanap, S., Thakhre, S., Wadatkar, S., Bairagi, R., Sagrule, S. and Biyani, K. R. (2020). A REVIEW ON CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19). International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, 6(4), 109-115.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020a). CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19) OUTBREAK: RIGHTS, ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF HEALTH WORKERS, INCLUDING KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH. Available at:
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-rights-roles-respon-hw-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=bcabd401_0

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020b). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 94. Available at:
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200423-sitrep-94-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=b8304bf0_4

Zhang, X., Rao, H. –X., Wu, Y., Huang, Y. and Dai, H. (2020). Comparison of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of the COVID-19 and SARS Outbreaks in Mainland China. MedRxiv.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.23.20034058

Bernama (2020). 26-30 dan 56-60 dua golongan umur paling tinggi kes positif COVID-19.
http://www.astroawani.com/berita-malaysia/26-30-dan-56-60-dua-golongan-umur-paling-tinggi-kes-positif-covid-19-236197.
Published
2020-11-13
How to Cite
Nur Faziera, Y., Ailis Elizabeth, E., Danggat, C., & Tarmiji, M. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Density risk mapping using Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. GEOGRAFI, 8(2), 21-47. https://doi.org/10.37134/geografi.vol8.2.2.2020
Section
Articles