Demographic characteristics, behavioral problems, andiq profileof children with dyslexia at dyslexia association of indonesia from january-june 2019: a quantitative study

Authors

  • Irma Rachmawati Indigrow Child Development Center, Indonesia Jl. Haruman 35, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Kristiantini Dewi Soegondo Indigrow Child Development Center, Indonesia Jl. Haruman 35, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Purboyo Solek Indigrow Child Development Center, Indonesia Jl. Haruman 35, Bandung, Indonesia

Keywords:

dyslexia, characteristics, IQ profile, behavioral problems

Abstract

One of the most frequent causes of learning difficulties in children is dyslexia. Dyslexia Association of Indonesia as a center of diagnostic and intervention of children with dyslexia has served more than 800 cases since 2005. However, studies on dyslexia in Indonesia were still very few comparing to the extent of the problem which need solutions. The study was conducted to know the demographic characteristics, behavioral problems, and IQ profile of children with dyslexia during the study period. Data were collected from medical record. There were 133 children with dyslexiaadministered in the study and dominantly male (76%). Most of them were diagnosed at the age of 4-6 year old (56.5%) and 7-9 year old (33.8%) with median age of diagnosis at 79months. About 49.6% were primary school students and 39.9% were preschoolers. Result showed that 3% of children have mild dyslexia, 33% have moderate dyslexia, 42% have severe dyslexia, 13% were at risk of dyslexia, and 9% have no severity defined, yet. Seventy nine children (60%) had comorbidities, among them 68.4% had dyscalculia and dysgraphia, 27.8% had dyspraxia, 24.1% with poor self-esteem and anxiety disorders, and 36.1% had behavioral problems (ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). The IQ profiles (WISC, Griffith, or WPPSI) showed that 45.8% children had average IQ, 21.3% with superior IQ, 6.4% with very superior IQ, and 2.1% was gifted (FIQ median: 101.5). Gap were found between the VIQ and PIQ (median 14.5), whereby most children (69.2%) had VIQ less than their PIQ. These findings gave vivid picture to understand the IQ profile of dyslexic children and that dyslexia is not only about reading difficulties, but also includes comorbidities like behavioral problems that might cause academic problems despite progression of child’s reading ability.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Achenbach, T. M. and Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms and Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Res. Center for Children, Youth, and Families. ISBN 0-938565-73-7.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.

Association, A. P. (2000). Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV-TR. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Bishop DVM, Snowling MJ. (2004). Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: Same or different. Psychological Bulletin,130(6), 858–886.

Bolhasan, A. (2009). A study of dyslexia among primary school students in Sarawak, Malaysia, School of Doctoral Stu-dies. Euro Union J.,1, 250–268.

Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: The Guilford Press.

Cheruiyot I, Mathai M, Kumar M. (2015). Prevalence of dyslexia among children aged 7 to 9 in Nairobi, Kenya. ResearchGate. Date of access: 19/06/2019. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283210845

Choudhary, M. G., Jain, A., Chahar, C.K., Singhal, A.K. (2012). A case control study on specific learning disorders in school going children in Bikaner City. Indian J Pediatr, 79(11), 1477–1481.

Dhanda, A., Jagawat, T. (2013). Prevalence and pattern of learning disabilities in school children. Delhi Psychiatry Jour-nal. 16(2), 386-390.

Eissa, M. (2010). Behavioral and emotional problems associated with dyslexia in adolescence. Current Psychiatry, 17(1, 17-25.

Fawcett, A. and Nicolson, R. (2004). Dyslexia: the role of the cerebellum. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 2(2), 35-58.

Hawke, JL., Olson, R., Willcut, EG., Wadsworth, SJ., and Defries, JC. (2009). Gender ratios for reading difficulties. Dyslexia, 15, 239-242.

Heiervang, E., Lund, A., Stevenson, J., and Hugdahl, K. (2001). Behavior problems in children with dyslexia. University of Bergen, Norway, 55(4), 251-256.

Knivsberg, A. M. and Andreassen, A. B. (2008). Behavior, attention and cognition in severe dyslexia. Nordic J. Psychiatry, 62(1), 59-65.

Lucid. Undertanding Dyslexia. (2006). F19,02. Research Ltd. Date of access: 19/06/2019. https://www.Lucid-Research.com

Miles, T. (2004). Some problem in determining the prevalence of dyslexia. Elec J Res Educ Psychol, 2, 5-12.

Miles, T., Haslum, M., and Wheeler, T. (1998). Gender ratio in dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 27-55.

Mogasale. W., Patil, V.D., Patil, N.M., and Mogasale V. (2012). Prevalence of specific learning disabilities among primary school children in a South Indian City. Indian J Pediatr, 79(3), 342-347.

Muter, V. and Likierman, H. (2008). Dyslexia: A parent's guide to dyslexia, dispraxia and other learning difficulties. United Kingdom: Vermilion- Random House Group Company.

Patil, H. and Patil, M. (2015). Prevalence of dyslexia in higher primary school children and its effect on behavioral problems. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 28(4), 592-5.

Pennington, BF. (2009). Diagnosing learning disorders: A neuropsychological framework. 2nd ed.. Guilford Press; New York.

Rajinder, S., Amit, N., and Madhu, N. (2017). Prevalence of dyslexia among school children in Western Rajasthan, Jaipur. OSR-JDMS, 16(5), 59-62.

Roongpraiwan, R., Ruangdaraganon, N., Visudhiphan, P., and Santikul, K. (2002). Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students. J Med Assoc Thai., 85,1097–1103.

Rose, S. J. (2009). Identifying and teaching children and young people with dyslexia and literacy difficulties.

Samuelsson, S. and Lundberg, I. (1996). The impact of environmental factors on components of reading and dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53(1), 201-217.

Savage, R. and Frederickson, N. (2005). Evidence of a highly relationship between rapid automatic naming of digits and text-reading speed. Brain and Language, 93, 152-159.

Scheepers, M. (2009). Working memory: A comparison between dyslexic and non dyslexic children. Johannesburg: Unpublished Masters thesis.

Schumacher, J., Hoffman, P., Schmal, C., Schulte-Korne, G., and Nothen MM. (2007). Genetics of dyslexia: the evolving landscape. J Med Genet., 44(5), 298-305.

Shaywitz, S.E. and Shaywitz, B A. (2003). Dyslexia (Specific reading disability). Ped Rev, 24, 147-153.

Shaywitz, S.E. and Shaywitz, B A. (2004). Reading disability and the brain. Educational Leadership, 61(6), 6-11.

Shaywitz, S.E., Morris, R. and Shaywitz B. (2008). The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 59, 451-475.

Siddqui, S., and Tripathi, N. (2014). Identification and assessment of children with dyslexia in Allahabad City. Universal Journal of Psychology, 2(6), 205-211.

Vellutino, F.R., Scanlon, D.M., Sipay, E.R., Small, S.G.,Pratt, A., Chen, R.S., & Denckla, M.B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult to remediate and readilyremediated poor readers: Early intervention as avehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experientialdeficits as basic causes of specific readingdisability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88,601–638.

Vlachos, F., Avramidis, E., Dedousis, G., Chalmpe, M., Ntalla, I., and Giannakopoulou, M. (2013). Prevalence and gender ratio of dyslexia in greek adolescents and its association with parental history and brain injury. American Journal of Educational Research, 1(1), 22-25.

Willcut, E.G., Pennington, B.F., Chhabildas, N.A., Olson, R.K., and Hulslander, J.L. (2005). Neuropsychological analyses of comorbidity between RD and ADHD: In search of the common deficit. Dev Neuropsychol, 27, 35-78.

Wolf, M. and Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 415-438.

Wolf, M., Goldberg O'Rourke, A., Gidney, C., Lovett, M., Cirino, P., and Morris, R. (2002). The second deficit : An investigation of the independence of phonological and naming-speed deficits in developmental dyslexia. Reading and writing: an interdisciplinary journal, 15, 43-72.

Downloads

Published

2019-12-11

How to Cite

Rachmawati, I., Dewi Soegondo, K., & Solek, P. (2019). Demographic characteristics, behavioral problems, andiq profileof children with dyslexia at dyslexia association of indonesia from january-june 2019: a quantitative study. Jurnal Pendidikan Bitara UPSI, 12(1), 68–79. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/JPB/article/view/3057