STEM approaches in teaching and learning process: Systematic Literature Review (SLR)
Pendekatan STEM dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran: Sorotan Literatur Bersistematik (SLR)
STEM approaches are able to help the students to think creatively, systematically and logically. There are two major issues that need to be discussed which are the low level achievement of students in Science and Mathematics through international assessments of TIMSS and PISA and students were less interested in the conventional teaching and learning process. The primary goal of this study is to analyse the articles that are related to STEM approach in teaching and learning and develop conceptual framework based on the analysis carried out. Two databases which are SCOPUS and ERIC were used in screening the articles. A systematic literature review procedure includes the search strategies, selection criteria, selection process, data collection and data analysis from the articles obtained. There are 31 articles that fulfill the criteria of selection such as the year of publication and types of language. The results of the analysis showed that inquiry-based learning has the highest number of referrals followed by project-based learning, multi-mode learning, problem-based learning and cooperative learning. The conceptual framework was developed based on the STEM approaches that are frequently used in past studies which included inquiry-based learning, project-based learning, multi-mode learning, problem-based learning and cooperative learning. Therefore, further researches are needed to examine whether cooperative learning can be incorporated into the established conceptual frameworks.
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