The relationship between caffeine intake and aggression levels among University Suksis Corp Athletes

Hubungan antara pengambilan kafein dan tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan Atlet Kor Suksis Universiti

  • Megat Muhammad Asri Salleh Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Kejurulatihan, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Normah Jusoh Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Kejurulatihan, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
Keywords: Caffeine, Aggression, Athletes, SUKSIS


This study aimed to examine the relationship between caffeine intake and the level of aggression among university Kor SUKSIS athletes. This research is a survey method using a questionnaire related to caffeine intake and the level of aggression The Judgment About Moral Behavior in Youth Sport (JAMBYSQ). About 80 SUKSIS athletes from five selected team sports volunteered to involve in this study. Data from questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests, independent t tests and Pearson Correlation. The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference (p = 0.014) in the level of frequency of caffeine intake between male athletes (2.00 ± 0.87) and female athletes (1.50 ± 0.76). In addition, for the level of aggression there was no significant difference between male (3.37 ± 0.60) and female athletes (3.23 ± 0.66), and there was no significant relationship found between caffeine intake and level of aggression during training (r = 0.024, n = 80, p = 0.831). To conclude, eventhough the caffeine intake differed significantly between genders, but the caffeine intake did not influence the level of aggression among the athletes. There is a need to investigate the appropriate caffeine dosage that may trigger aggression among the athletes.


Download data is not yet available.


Allen, J. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2017). Aggression and violence: Definitions and distinctions. The Wiley and book of violence and aggression, 1-14.

Avtgis, T., & Rancer, A. S. (Eds.). (2010). Arguments, aggression, and conflict: New directions in theory and research. New York: Routledge.

Cakir, O. K., Ellek, N., Salehin, N., Hamamcı, R., Keleş, H., Kayalı, D. G., & Özbeyli, D. (2017). Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function. Physiology and Behavior, 168, 1-10.

Denson, T. F., Jacobson, M., Von Hippel, W., Kemp, R. I., & Mak, T. (2012). Caffeine expectancies but not caffeine reduce depletion-induced aggression. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(1), 140.

Dillon, P., Kelpin, S., Kendler, K., Thacker, L., Dick, D., & Svikis, D. (2019). Gender Differences in Any-Source Caffeine and Energy Drink Use and Associated Adverse Health Behaviors. Journal of Caffeine and Adenosine Research, 9(1), 12–19.

Ding, M., Bhupathiraju, S. N., Chen, M., Van Dam, R. M., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis. Diabetes care, 37(2), 569-586.

Entesar Fourmany, G. H., & Salehi, J. (2013). The effects of anger management skills training on aggression, social adjustment, and mental health of college students. Journal of Education Management esearch, 3(4), 266-270.

Heckman, M. A., Weil, J., & De Mejia, E. G. (2010). Caffeine (1, 3, 7‐trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. Journal of Food Science, 75(3), R77-R87.

Hermansen, K., Krogholm, K. S., Bech, B. H., Dragsted, L. O., Hyldstrup, L., Jørgensen, K., ... & Tjønneland, A. M. (2012). Coffee can protect against disease. Ugeskrift for laeger, 174(39), 2293.

Jahrami, H., Al-Mutarid, M., Penson, P. E., Faris, A. I., Saif, Z., & Hammad, L. (2020). Intake of Caffeine and Its Association with Physical and Mental Health Status among University Students in Bahrain. Foods, 9(4), 473.

Jenkinson, D., & Harbert, A. (2008). Supplements and Sports. American Family Physician, 78(9), 1039- 46.

Kromhout, M. A., Jongerling, J., & Achterberg, W. P. (2014). Relation between caffeine and behavioral symptoms in elderly patients with dementia: an observational study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 18(4), 407-410.

Kuhns, J. B., Clodfelter, T. A., & Bersot, H. Y. (2010). Examining and understanding the joint role of caffeine and alcohol in facilitating violent offending and victimization. Contemporary Drug Problems, 37(2), 267-287.

Marmorstein, N. R. (2016). Energy drink and coffee consumption and psychopathology symptoms among early adolescents: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Journal of Caffeine Research, 6(2), 64-72.

McLellan, T. M., Caldwell, J. A., & Lieberman, H. R. (2016). A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 294-312.

Md Yusop, S. A., Abd Aziz, S., & Mohd Rasyid, N. (2018). Perkaitan antara corak orientasi matlamat dan tahap keagresifan pemain bola baling bawah 18. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 7(2), 32-41.

Nehlig, A. (2016). Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain health and disease: What should I tell my patients? Practical Neurology, 16(2), 89-95.

Pelegrín, A., Serpa, S., & Rosado, A. (2013). Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in competitive sports: an analysis of related personal and environmental variables. Anales de psicología, 29(3), 701-713.

Powers M. (2004) “Safety, Efficacy, And Legal Issues Related To Dietary Supplement.” Strategies 18.1 :30-34. ProQuest Education Journals. ProQuest. Karl E. Mundt Library, Madison, SD.

Rahimizadeh, M., Arabnarmi, B., Mizany, M., & Shahbazi, M. (2011). Determining the difference of aggression in Male & Female, athlete and non-athlete students. ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2264-2267.

Richards, G., & Smith, A. (2015). Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(12), 12361247.

Salazar-Martinez, E., Willett, W. C., Ascherio, A., Manson, J. E., Leitzmann, M. F., Stampfer, M. J., & Hu, F. B. (2004). Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of InternalMedicine, 140(1), 1-8.

Shaharudin, Abd Aziz (1998). Aggressive Tendencies in Malaysian youth soccer: An examination of individual and contextual factors. Tesis PhD yang tidak diterbitkan. Iowa: The University of Iowa.

Shaharudin, Abd Aziz (2001). Mengaplikasi Teori Psikologi Dalam Sukan, Kuala Lumpur: UtusanPublication & Distributors.

Sofia, R., & Cruz, J. F. A. (2017). Unveiling anger and aggression in sports: The effects of type of sport, competitive category and success level. Revista de psicología del deporte, 26(2), 21-28.

Stanger, N., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2017). Gender moderates the relationship between empathy and aggressiveness in sport: The mediating role of anger. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 29(1), 44-58.

Temple, J. L., Dewey, A. M., & Briatico, L. N. (2010). Effects of acute caffeine administration on dolescents. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 510–520.

Temple, J. L., & Ziegler, A. M. (2011). Gender differences in subjective and physiological responses to caffeine and the role of steroid hormones. Journal of Caffeine Research, 1(1), 41-48.

Traclet, A., Moret, O., Ohl, F., & Clémence, A. (2015). Moral disengagement in the legitimation and realization of aggressive behavior in soccer and ice hockey. Aggressive behavior, 41(2), 123-133.

Turnbull, D., Rodricks, J. V., & Mariano, G. F. (2016). Neurobehavioral hazard identification and characterization for caffeine. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 74, 81-92.

Visek, A. J., Watson, J. C., Hurst, J. R., Maxwell, J. P., & Harris, B. S. (2010). Athletic identity and aggressiveness: A cross‐cultural analysis of the athletic identity maintenance model.International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8(2), 99-116.

Yoon, I., & Yoon, Y. J. (2014). Effect of psychological skill training as a psychological intervention for a successful rehabilitation of a professional soccer player: single case study. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 10(5), 295-301.

Yudko, E., & McNiece, S. I. (2014). Relationship between coffee use and depression and anxiety in a population of adult polysubstance abusers. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 8(6), 438-442.
How to Cite
Salleh, M. M. A., & Jusoh, N. (2020). The relationship between caffeine intake and aggression levels among University Suksis Corp Athletes. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 9(2), 38-46.