Kesan dehidrasi tahap rendah terhadap prestasi kognitif, mood dan skala subjektif dalam kalangan atlet bola sepak lelaki

The effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance, mood and subjective feelings among male football players

  • Engku Mohd Afzainizam Tengku Abdillah Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Normah Jusoh Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia
Keywords: Dehidrasi, mood, prestasi kognitif, skala subjektif

Abstract

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti kesan dehidrasi tahap rendah terhadap prestasi kognitif, mood dan skala subjektif dalam kalangan atlet bola sepak lelaki Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). Empat belas orang atlet yang terlibat dengan min umur adalah 22±1 tahun, min berat 65.7±7.6 kg dan min tinggi 168±6 cm dibahagikan kepada percubaan dehidrasi dan euhidrasi secara rawak. Data asas diambil seminggu sebelum ujikaji sebenar untuk merekodkan masa yang diambil bagi berat badan yang turun tidak melebihi 2% daripada berat badan asal. Lima belas minit sebelum ujikaji dijalankan, berat, tinggi, kadar nadi dan sampel urin peserta diambil dan seterusnya membuat pemanasan badan dalam tempoh sepuluh minit. Peserta dikehendaki melakukan senaman dehidrasi tahap rendah iaitu berlari perlahan di atas treadmill dalam tempoh 45 minit. Peserta bagi percubaan euhidrasi dibekalkan minuman setiap 15 minit sepanjang ujikaji berlangsung, manakala percubaan dehidrasi tidak dibekalkan minuman. Soal selidik Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) digunakan untuk menilai skala subjektif tahap sakit kepala dan tahap dahaga, manakala prestasi kognitif dinilai melalui Ujian Flanker. Soal selidik Profile of Mood State (POMS) digunakan untuk menilai mood peserta kajian. Urine Specific Gravity sampel urin diukur menggunakan Digital Refractometer untuk menentukan status hidrasi peserta. Data yang diperolehi dari kajian ini telah dianalisis menggunakan Ujian t sampel berpasangan. Terdapat perbezaan signifikan penyusutan berat badan selepas aktiviti bagi percubaan dehidrasi berbanding euhidrasi. Dari segi prestasi kognitif, terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan bagi komponen masa tindak balas tidak kongruen antara percubaan dehidrasi dan euhidrasi. Seterusnya, dapatan kajian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan bagi keenam-enam dimensi mood antara percubaan dan bagi pembolehubah skala subjektif hanya tahap sakit kepala menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan antara percubaan. Secara kesimpulannya, didapati dehidrasi tahap rendah telah memberikan kesan kepada tahap sakit kepala dan masa tindak balas tidak kongruen. Atlet perlu didedahkan dengan strategi pengambilan minuman dan kesedaran tentang status hidrasi bagi mengelakkan dehidrasi, dan seterusnya memastikan kesihatan fizikal dan mental serta prestasi sukan berada dalam keadaan baik.

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This study aims to examine whether mild dehydration affects the cognitive function, mood and subjective feelings among the male football players of Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). Fourteen athletes with the mean age of 22±1 years, weight of 65.7 ±7.6 kg and height of 168±6 cm were randomly divided into dehydration and euhydration trials. The baseline data was collected a week before the main trials to record the time taken by the participants to lose 2% of the body weight. Fifteen minutes before conducting the trials, the weight, height, pulse rate and urine samples of the participants were collected and then a warm-up session was conducted for ten minutes. The participants were instructed to exercise until mild dehydration by conducting a slow running on a treadmill within forty-five minutes. The participants from the euhydration trial were given drinks every fifteen minutes throughout the experiment, while the dehydration trial were not provided with drinks. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire was used to determine the subjective feelings of dizziness and thirst, while the cognitive performance was measured by using the Flanker Test. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionaire was utilized to measure the mood changes of the participants. Urine Specific Gravity of the urine samples was measured using Digital Refractometer to determine the hydration status of the participants. The data were analysed using the Paired t-test. There was a significant difference in post-exercise body weight loss for the dehydration trial compared to the euhydration trial. In terms of cognitive performance, there was a significant difference for the component of non-congruent reaction time between the dehydration and euhydration trials. Besides, the findings had shown that there were no significant differences for all six dimensions of mood between the trials and there was a significant different for dizziness level between the trials. In conclusion, this study found that mild dehydration has affected the subjective feeling of dizziness and non-congruent reaction time. Thus, the athletes need to be exposed to the fluid intake strategy and the awareness about hydration status in order to avoid dehydration to optimize physical, mental and sports performance.

Keywords: Dehydration, mood, cognitive performance, visual analog scale

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Published
2018-08-30
How to Cite
Tengku Abdillah, E. M. A., & Jusoh, N. (2018). Kesan dehidrasi tahap rendah terhadap prestasi kognitif, mood dan skala subjektif dalam kalangan atlet bola sepak lelaki. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 7(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.37134/jsspj.vol7.2.1.2018