Does Coaching Effectiveness and Coach-Athlete Relationship Moderate the Anxiety Among Athletes?
In sport, anxiety is one of the psychological factors that prevent the athlete’s optimal performance. The athlete’s anxiety filled with negative emotion or failure in completing a task, achieving goals, and facing obstacles. Literature has stated that, poor coaching behaviors affecting athlete’s anxiety by emotional problems experienced in the sport. However, the existing literature on the influence of coaching effectiveness and the coach-athlete relationship does not investigate specifically on anxiety. Therefore, this study was performed to analyses the literature regarding the influence of coaching effectiveness and coach-athlete relationship on anxiety among athletes. The systematic review literature has been conducted. In the time frame of 10 years, fifteen studies in form of articles and journals meet the selection criteria were analyzed. The analyses revealed that athletes are less anxious when trained by supportive coach behavior. Coaching effectiveness showed that coaches positively affect the learning and performance of the athletes. Having a good relationship with the coach gives the best chances for success in performance. The quality of the relationship between coach and athlete is found to influence the physical and psychological well-being, motivation, and confidence of the athlete. Besides, the performance of the athletes is based on how effective their coaches to influence the athletes and how they work together. Thus, do coaches stand out as the fundamental figure in issues of athlete’s anxiety, and should coaching effectiveness and coach-athlete relationship be able outstanding in examining the anxiety among athletes?
Adie, J. W., & Jowett, S. (2010). Meta‐perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation among sport participants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(11), 2750-2773.
Akbar, N., Honarmand, K., & Feinstein, A. (2011). Self-assessment of cognition in multiple sclerosis: the role of personality and anxiety. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 24(3), 115-121.
Baker, J., Côté, J., & Hawes, R. (2000). The relationship between coaching behaviours and sport anxiety in athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 3(2), 110-119.
Balaguer, I., Gonzalez, L., Fabra, P., Castillo, I., Merce, J., & Duda, J. L. (2012). Coaches' interpersonal style, basic psychological needs and the well-and ill-being of young soccer players: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 1619-1629.
Bennie, A., & O'Connor, D. (2012). Coach-athlete relationships: A qualitative study of professional sport teams in Australia. International Journal of Sport and Health Science, 201208.
Boardley, I. D., Jackson, B., & Simmons, A. (2015). Changes in task self-efficacy and emotion across competitive performances in golf. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(4), 393-409.
Boardley, I. D., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2008). Athletes’ perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model. The Sport Psychologist, 22(3), 269-287.
Cheng, W.-N. K., Hardy, L., & Markland, D. (2009). Toward a three-dimensional conceptualization of performance anxiety: Rationale and initial measurement development. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(2), 271-278.
Crane, J., & Temple, V. (2015). A systematic review of dropout from organized sport among children and youth. European Physical Education Review, 21(1), 114-131.
de Haan, D., & Norman, L. (2020). Mind the gap: the presence of capital and power in the female athlete–male-coach relationship within elite rowing. Sports Coaching Review, 9(1), 95-118.
Falcão, W. R., Bloom, G. A., & Gilbert, W. D. (2012). Coaches’ perceptions of a coach training program designed to promote youth developmental outcomes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24(4), 429-444.
Feltz, D. L., Chase, M. A., Moritz, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (1999). A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 765.
Gilbert, W., & Côté, J. (2013). A focus on coaches’ knowledge. Routledge Handbook of Sports Coaching, 147-159.
Gorden, D. (2009). Coaching Science, Learning Matters Ltd, UK, 15-25.
Hill, A. P., & Davis, P. A. (2014). Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: A test of the 2× 2 model of dispositional perfectionism. Motivation and Emotion, 38(5), 715-726.
Isoard-Gautheur, S., Trouilloud, D., Gustafsson, H., & Guillet-Descas, E. (2016). Associations between the perceived quality of the coach–athlete relationship 28 and athlete burnout: An examination of the mediating role of achievement goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 210-217.
Jowett, S. (2017). Coaching effectiveness: the coach–athlete relationship at its heart. Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 154-158.
Jowett, S. (2005). On repairing and enhancing the coach-athlete relationship. The psychology of Coaching, 14-26.
Jowett, S., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). The coach–athlete relationship questionnaire (CART‐Q): Development and initial validation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(4), 245-257.
Jowett, S., & Cockerill, I. M. (2003). Olympic medallists’ perspective of the althlete–coach relationship. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4(4), 313-331.
Kassim, A. F. M., Abdullah, W. F. I. W., Japilus, S. J. M., & Yusri, A. S. A. (2019). Coach-Athlete Relationship and Coaching Effectiveness in Team Sports Athletes. In International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise (pp. 451-462). Springer, Singapore.
Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. D., Jutkiewicz, N., Vincent, S., & Ring, C. (2008). Coaching efficacy and coaching effectiveness: Examining their predictors and comparing coaches’ and athletes’ reports. The Sport Psychologist, 22(4), 383-404.
Kenow, L., & Williams, J. M. (1999). Coach-athlete compatibility and athlete's perception of coaching behaviors. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 22, 251-259.
Khan, M. K., Khan, A., Khan, S. U., & Khan, S. (2017). Effects of anxiety on athletic performance. Res. Inves. Sports Med, 1, 1-5.
Magrum, E. D., & McCullick, B. A. (2019). The Role of Emotion in Sport Coaching: A Review of the Literature. The Sport Journal, 22.
Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Champaign, IL:Human kinetics.
Kassim, A. F. M., & Boardley, I. D. (2018). Athlete perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-level outcomes in team and individual sports: a cross-cultural investigation. The Sport Psychologist, 32(3), 189-198.
Mottaghi, M., Atarodi, A., & Rohani, Z. (2013). The relationship between coaches’ and athletes’ competitive anxiety, and their performance. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 7(2), 68.
Nicholls, A. R., & Perry, J. L. (2016). Perceptions of coach–athlete relationship are more important to coaches than athletes in predicting dyadic coping and stress appraisals: an actor–partner independence mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 447.
Raglin, J. S., & Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Competitive anxiety. Emotions in sport, 93-111.
Rhind, D. J., Jowett, S., & Yang, S. X. (2012). A comparison of athletes' perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship in team and individual sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(4).
Williams, M., Czech, D. R., & Biber, D. D. (2017). The impact of NCAA Division I women soccer coaching style on player well-being: A qualitative analysis. Applied Research in Coaching & Athletics Annual, 32, 85-96.
Copyright (c) 2021 Hasmida Kamis, Jamilah Ahmad Radzi, Ahmad Fikri Mohd Kassim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.