Multi-dimensional Factors that Set Off Challenges for the Urban Middle Income Society in Penang to Own a House

Faktor Multidimensi yang Menjadi Cabaran Masyarakat Bandar Berpendapatan Sederhana di Pulau Pinang untuk Memiliki Rumah

  • Annuar Mohamed Bahagian Perancangan dan Pengurusan Pembangunan, Pusat Pengajian Sains Kemasyarakatan, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Nor Malina Malek Bahagian Perancangan dan Pengurusan Pembangunan, Pusat Pengajian Sains Kemasyarakatan, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Keywords: middle-income, urban society, multi-dimensional perspective, urban housing, Penang


The ability to own a house has always been the main issue not just for an individual, but also the main agenda in the nation's sustainable development process. The nation's rapid development has triggered the urbanization process through the migration of society to an urban area which is the nation's center of economic growth.  This has caused a high demand for house ownership in the urban area especially among middle-income society and Penang state is no exception. This article discusses the multi-dimensional factors that set off challenges for the urban middle-income society in Penang to own a house. A qualitative study was conducted through face-to-face interview method and the information collected has reached its saturation up to 15 informants which involved the urban middle income society. Penang was chosen because of the urban population and urbanization rate among the highest in Malaysia. Data obtained from the in-depth interview was analyzed using the thematic content analysis method to meet the objective of the study. The findings show 6 multi-dimensional factors that were seen as challenges for the urban middle income society to own a house; namely the dimensions of economic, social, geography, physical, infrastructure, and housing policy. The main implication of this study is the emphasis on the importance of analysing the factors that impede society to own a house from a multi-dimensional perspective to formulate more effective and conclusive housing policies and strategies for the well-being of the society.


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How to Cite
Mohamed, A., & Malek, N. M. (2021). Multi-dimensional Factors that Set Off Challenges for the Urban Middle Income Society in Penang to Own a House. Perspektif: Jurnal Sains Sosial Dan Kemanusiaan, 13(1), 26-36.