Factors Influencing Ex-Prisoners to Become Homeless: A Case Study in Kuala Lumpur

Faktor Mempengaruhi Bekas Banduan menjadi Gelandangan: Kajian Kes di Kuala Lumpur

  • Mohd Alif Jasni Pusat Pengajian Psikologi Gunaan, Dasar dan Kerja Sosial, Universiti Utara Malaysia dan Institute for Psychotherapy, Correctional & Rehabilitation (iPSYCORE), Sintok, Kedah, MALAYSIA
  • Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah Jabatan Pentadbiran dan Keadilan Sosial, Fakulti Sastera dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • Norruzeyati Che Mohd Nasir Pusat Pengajian Psikologi Gunaan, Dasar dan Kerja Sosial, Universiti Utara Malaysia dan Asian Research Institute for Governance (ARICG), Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, MALAYSIA
  • Noralina Omar Jabatan Pentadbiran dan Keadilan Sosial, Fakulti Sastera dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Keywords: ex-prisoner, homeless people, antecedent factors, exclusion, reintegration

Abstract

Ex-prisoners who end up as homeless people are not a new issue in any country. The failure to reintegrate makes them homeless people. The difficulty is further complicated by the existence of ex-prisoners who have fallen into poverty and deprivation causing them not able to get out of the streets living. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the factors that caused these ex-prisoners to end up living as homeless people. The study used a qualitative method by interviewing a total of 15 respondents. Purposive sampling  and snowball sampling technique were used to identify the respondents. The study shows that there are several factors that cause them to end up as homeless people, namely family rejection, unemployment, societal discrimination and persistent drug addiction. The findings are expected to be used as a guide for the Malaysian Prison Department and Department of Social Welfare Malaysia as well as other rehabilitation agencies in developing appropriate assistance and further support programs for homeless ex-prisoners to prevent them from the streets living.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alowaimer, O. (2018). Causes, effects and issues of homeless people. Journal of Socialomics, 7(3), 1-4.

Atkin, C. A., & Armstrong, G. S. (2013). Does the concentration of parolees in a community impact employer attitudes toward the hiring of ex-offenders? Criminal Justice Policy Review, 24(1), 71-93.

Berawi, F. A., & Ismail, N. A (2019). Gelandangan di Kuala Lumpur: Tinjauan Awal. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337679453_Gelandangan_di_Kuala_Lumpur_Tinjauan_Awal

Berg, M. T., & Huebner, B. M. (2011). Reentry and the ties that bind: An examination of social ties, employment, and recidivism. Justice Quarterly, 28(2), DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2010.498383

Brunton-Smith, I. & McCarthy, D. (2017). The effects of prisoner attachment to family on re-entry outcomes: A longitudinal assessment. The British Journal of Criminology, 57(2), 463–482.

Davis, C., Bahr, S. J., & Ward, C. (2012). The process of offender reintegration: Perceptions of what helps prisoners reenter society. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 13(4), 446-469.

Denver, M., Siwach, G., & Bushway, S. (2017). A new look at the employment and recidivism relationship through the lens of a criminal background check. Criminology, 55(1), 174-204.

Fashey, J., Roberts, C., & Engel, L. (2006). Employment of ex-offenders: Employer perspectives. Executive Office of Public Safety, Crime & Justice Institute.

Geller, A. & Curtis, M. (2011). A sort of homecoming: Incarceration and the housing security of urban men. Social Science Research, 40(4), 1196–1213. DOI:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.03.008

Grant, R., Gracy, D., Goldsmith, G., Shapiro, A., & Redlener, I.E. (2013). Twenty-five years of child and family homelessness: Where are we now? America Journal of Public Health, 103, e1–e10.

Green, D., & Winik, D. (2010). Using random judge assignments to estimate the effects of incarceration and probation on recidivism among drug offenders. Criminology, 48(2), 357–387.

Hanson-Easey, S., Every, D., Tehan, B., Richardson, J., & Krackowizer, A. (2016). Climate change, housing and homelessness: Report on the homelessness and climate change forum. https://www.nccarf.edu.au/sites/default/files/Forum%20report%20on%20homelessness%20and%20climate%20change%20final.pdf

Herbert, C. W., Morenoff, J. D. & Harding, D. J. (2015). Homelessness and housing insecurity among former prisoners. The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 1(2), 44–79.

Hochstetler, A., DeLisi, M., & Pratt, T. C. (2010). Social support and feelings of hostility among released inmates. Crime & Delinquency, 56, 588–607. DOI: 10.1177/0011128708319926

Holzer, H., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. (2004). Will employers hire ex-offenders?: Employer preferences, background checks, and their determinants. Imprisoning America. Dlm Patillo, M., Weiman, D.F. & Western, B. (pnyt,), The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration. hlm. 205-246. Russell Sage Foundation.

Idris, M. A. H., & Ramli, M. A. (2017). Golongan gelandangan di Malaysia: Antara perluasan tafsiran Asnaf Ibnu Al-Sabil dan Al-Riqab. Dlm Najahurin Lateh, Muhamad Rahimi Osman & Ghafarullahhuddin Din. Isu-Isu Kotemperorari dalam Zakat, Wakaf dan Filantropi Islam. Akademi Pengajian Islam Kotemporari.

Jasni, M. A., Ah, S. H. A. B., Yusoff, J. Z., Shahid, K. M., Omar, N., & Azman, Z. (2018). Faktor penghijrahan dan penumpuan bekas banduan di Jalan Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. Geografia, 14(1), 87-101.

Jasni, M. A., Ah, S. H. A. B., Yusoff, J. Z., Shahid, K. M., Omar, N. & Azman, Z. (2019). Family refusal as a contributing factor to the homelessness problem among former prisoners in Malaysia. Sarjana, 34(1), 23-37.

Jasni, M. A., Ah, S. H. A. B., & Nasir, N. C. M. (2020). Three major interrelated factors contributing to homelessness issue among former prisoners in Malaysia. The International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 9, 415-430. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2020.09.40

Jasni, M. A., Ah, S. H. A. B., & Nasir, N. C. M. (2021). Tough life after prison: An analysis of 19 former prisoners in Malaysia. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences), 14(1), 24-36.

Ku Yaacob, K. B., Mohamad, M. S., & Sarnon, N. (2017). Isu gelandangan di Malaysia: Tahap kesihatan mental & kemahiran hidup. Jurnal Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah (Special Issue), 119-131.

Luther, J. B., Reichert, E. S., Holloway, E. D., Roth, A. M., & Aalsma, M. C. (2011). An exploration of community reentry needs and services for prisoners: A focus on care to limit return to high-risk behavior. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 25(8), 475-481.

Maruna, S. (2011). Reentry as a rite of passage. Punishment & Society, 13(1), 3–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474510385641

McKernan, P. (2017). Homelessness and prisoner reentry: Examining barriers to housing stability and evidence-based strategies that promote improved outcomes. Journal of community corrections, 7-28.

Moore, K., Stuewig, J., & Tangney, J. (2016). The effect of stigma on criminal offenders’ functioning: A longitudinal mediational model. Deviant Behavior, 37(2), 196–218.

Pettit, B., & Lyons, C. (2007). Status and the stigma of incarceration: The labor-market effects of incarceration, by race, class, and criminal involvement. Dalam B. Shawn, & M. Stoll (Eds.), Barriers to reentry? The labor market for released prisoners in post-industrial America (pp. 203-226). Russell Sage Foundation.

Ramakers, A., Apel, R., Nieuwbeerta, P., Dirkzwager, A., & Wilsen, J. (2014). Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects. Criminology, 52(3), 399-427.

Ramli, M. W., & Dawood, S. R. S. (2017). Memahami permasalahan golongan terpinggir di bandar: Kajian kes gelandangan di George Town, Pulau Pinang. Geografi, 5(2), 78-94.

Salomonsen-Sautel, S., Van Leeuwen, J.M., Gilroy, C., Boyle, S., Malberg, D. & Hopfer, C. (2008). Correlates of substance use among homeless youths in eight cities. American Journal of Addict, 17, 224-234. doi: 10.1080/10550490802019964.

Sanei, M., & Mir-Khalili, S. (2015). Factors affecting recidivism and return to prison male prisoners in the prisons of the West of Guilan and strategies for prevention. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2(2), 156-161.

Scott, C., Grella, C., Dennis, M., & Funk, R. (2014). Predictors of recidivism over 3 years among substance-using women released from jail. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(11), 1257-1289. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854814546894

Sota, M., & Agolli, I. (2015). Risk and protective factors to prevent recidivism of minors in criminality, a preventive approach in criminal justice. European Scientific Journal, 11(20), 1857 – 7881.

Taylor, C.J, & Becker, P. (2015). Are your friends crucial or trivial? Peer support’s effect on recidivism. Justice Policy Journal, 12(1), 1-20.

Tharshini, N. K., Ibrahim, F., Mohamad, M. S., & Zakaria, E. (2018). Challenges in Re-Entry among Former Inmates: A Review. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(4), 970–979. DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i4/4126

Tica, G., & Roth, M. (2012). Are former male inmates excluded from social life? European Journal of Probation, 4(2), 62 – 76.

Tsai, J., O’Toole, T., & Kearney, L.K. (2017). Homelessness as a public mental health and social problem: New knowledge and solutions. Psychological Services, 14(2), 113–117.

Yani, N. M. A., Zahari, N. Z., Samah, N. F. Azahar, M. A., Yasin, S. M., Saman, M. S., & Noor, N. A. (2016). Factors associated with homelessness and its medical issues among urban Malaysians: A qualitative research. Journal of Clinical and Health Sciences, 1(1), 46-58.

Published
2021-06-28
How to Cite
Jasni, M. A., Abu Bakar Ah, S. H., Che Mohd Nasir, N., & Omar, N. (2021). Factors Influencing Ex-Prisoners to Become Homeless: A Case Study in Kuala Lumpur. Perspektif: Jurnal Sains Sosial Dan Kemanusiaan, 13(1), 102-116. https://doi.org/10.37134/perspektif.vol13.1.9.2021