The impact of the name writing skill in preschool children on print knowledge, alphabet knowledge, and phonological awareness: The case of Turkey

  • Özlem Altındağ Kumaş Special Education Department, Ziya Gökalp Education Faculty, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, TURKEY
  • Halime Miray Sümer Dodur Special Education Department, Education Faculty, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Nevşehir, TURKEY
  • Yasemin Yüzbaşıoğlu Ahmet Haşhaş Kindergarten, Konya, TURKEY
Keywords: name writing skill, print knowledge, alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyze the name writing skills, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter knowledge skills of preschool Turkish children of different socioeconomic levels concerning various variables. This study also analyzes the predictiveness of name writing in supporting early literacy skills of children. The study included 357 preschoolers, which were 60 to 72 months old, with a mean age of 64,5 months. Name writing, phonological awareness, print awareness, and alphabet knowledge skills were compared to socioeconomic levels using the MANOVA analysis. The multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to predict the name writing variable using alphabet knowledge, print awareness, and phonological awareness variables of preschool children with different socioeconomic levels. The results of the study pointed to significant differences among all skills concerning socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES children got lower scores in all sub-skills. The study also compared early literacy performances of children based on the educational level of mothers, and significant differences were found among groups in all sub-skills. As the educational level of mothers increased, the scores of children out of all sub skills also increased. Another result got by the study is that the name writing skills of children have a significant predictive effect on print knowledge, alphabet knowledge, and phonological awareness. This study is important as it indicates about the early writing skills in a language like Turkish, which has transparent orthography, and it can pave the way for future research on the subject.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aram, D., Korat, O., & Hassunah-Arafat, S. (2013). The contribution of early home literacy activities to first grade reading and writing achievements in Arabic. Reading and Writing, 26(9), 1517-1536. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9430-y

Arnold, D. H., & Doctoroff, G. L. (2003). The early education of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. Annual review of psychology, 54(1), 517-545. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.111301.145442

Babayiğit, S., & Stainthorp, R. (2007). Preliterate phonological awareness and early literacy skills in Turkish. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(4), 394-413. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2007.00350.x

Badian, N. A. (2001). Phonological and orthographic processing: Their roles in reading prediction. Annals of Dyslexia, 51(1), 177-202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-001-0010-5.

Blair, R., & Savage, R. (2006). Name writing but not environmental print recognition is related to letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness in pre-readers. Reading and Writing, 19(9), 991-1016.

Bloodgood, J. W. (1999). What's in a name? Children's name writing and literacy acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 34(3), 342-367. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.34.3.5

Bissex, G.L. (1980). GNYS AT WRK: A child learns to write and read. Harvard University Press.

Bryant, D. M., Burchinal, M., Lau, L. B., & Sparling, J. J. (1994). Family and classroom correlates of Head Start children's developmental outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9(34), 289-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-2006(94)90011-6

Burchinal, M., McCartney, K., Steinberg, L., Crosnoe, R., Friedman, S. L., McLoyd, V., & Pianta, R. (2011). Examining the Black-White achievement gap among low-income children using the NICHD study of early childcare and youth development. Child Development, 82(5), 1404–1420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ j.1467-8624.2011.01620.x

Case, A., Lubotsky, D., & Paxson, C. (2002). Economic status and health in childhood: The origins of the gradient. American Economic Review, 92(5), 1308-1334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/000282802762024520

Chomsky, C. (1979). Approaching reading through invented spelling. In L.B. Resnick & P.A. Weaver (Eds.), Theory and practice of early reading: Volume 2 (pp. 43–66). Erlbaum

Clements, D., Sarama, J., & DiBiase, A. M. (Eds.). (2004). Engaging young children in mathematics: Findings of the 2000 national conference on standards for preschool and kindergarten mathematics education. Erlbaum

Cook, J. R., & Kilmer, R. P. (2010). The importance of context in fostering responsive community systems: Supports for families in systems of care. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01014.x

Curenton, S. M., & Justice, L. M. (2008). Children's preliteracy skills: Influence of mothers' education and beliefs about shared-reading interactions. Early Education and Development, 19(2), 261-283. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280801963939

Çakmak, T., & Yilmaz, B. (2009). Okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının okuma alışkanlığına hazırlık durumları üzerine bir araştırma: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Beytepe Anaokulu örneği [A research about the reading habit readiness situations of preschool children: Hacettepe University Beytepe Preschool Sample]. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 23(3), 489-509.

Deretarla Gül, E., & Bal, S. (2006). An investigation relationship between kindergarten teacher’s perceptions of literacy acquisition, classroom materials and practices, children’s literacy involvement. Journal of Child Development and Education., 3(1-2), 33-51.

Diamond, K. E., & Baroody, A. E. (2013). Associations among name writing and alphabetic skills in prekindergarten and kindergarten children at risk of school failure. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815113499611

Diamond, K. E., Gerde, H. K., & Powell, D. R. (2008). Development in early literacy skills during the pre-kindergarten year in Head Start: Relations between growth in children's writing and understanding of letters. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(4), 467-478.

Dickinson, D. K., & Caswell, L. (2007). Building support for language and early literacy in preschool classrooms through in-service professional development: Effects of the Literacy Environment Enrichment Program (LEEP). Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(2), 243-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.03.001

Elias, R., Razali, M., & Hamzah, M. (2014). The effectiveness of kitab cerdas© on children’s reading ability. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 3, 56-69. https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/SAECJ/article/view/963

Ergül, C., Akoğlu, G., Sarıca, A.D, Tufan, M. & Karaman, G. (2015). Examination of shared book reading activities in kindergartens based on “dialogic reading”. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 11(3),603-619. https://doi.org/10.17860/efd.88429

Erkan, D. Y., & Saban, A. I. (2011). Writing perfomance relative to writing apprehension, self-efficacy in writing, and attitudes toward writing: A correlational study in turkis tertiary-level EFL. The Asian Journal Quarterly, 13 (1), 163-191.

Hammill, D. D. (2004). What we know about correlates of reading. Exceptional children, 70(4), 453-469. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290407000405

Hsieh, W. Y., Hemmeter, M. L., McCollum, J. A., & Ostrosky, M. M. (2009). Using coaching to increase preschool teachers’ use of emergent literacy teaching strategies. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(3), 229-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.03.007

Garcia, E., & Weiss, E. (2017). Education inequalities at the school starting gate: Gaps, trends, and strategies to address them. Economic Policy Institute.

Green, S., & Salkind, N. (2005). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Understanding and Analysing Data. Upper Saddle River Prentice Hall.

Justice, L.M. & Ezell, H.K. (2004). Print referencing: An emergent literacy enhancement strategy and its clinical applications. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 35, 185–193. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2004/018)

Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2010). Cultural psychology. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Karaman, G. (2013). Development of early literacy skills assessment tool, validity and reliability study Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara

Kargın, T., Güldenoğlu, B., & Ergül, C. (2017). Early literacy profile of kindergarten children: Ankara sample. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 18(1), 61-87. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.299868

Kerem, E. A., & D. Cömert. 2005. “Türkiye’de okul öncesi eğitimin sorunları ve çözüm önerileri [Problems of pre-school education in Turkey and some suggestions for solving those problems].” Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 21, 155–172

Landerl, K., & Wimmer, H. (2008). Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.150

Levin, I., Vries, A. B., Aram, D., & Bus, A. (2005). Writing starts with own name writing: From scribbling to conventional spelling in Israeli and Dutch children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26(3), 463.

Lonigan, C. J., Burgess, S. R., & Anthony, J. L. (2000). Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: evidence from a latent-variable longitudinal study. Developmental psychology, 36(5), 596. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.596

Molfese, V. J., Beswick, J. L., Jacobi-Vessels, J. L., Armstrong, N. E., Culver, B. L., White, J. M., ... & Molfese, D. L. (2011). Evidence of alphabetic knowledge in writing: Connections to letter and word identification skills in preschool and kindergarten. Reading and Writing, 24(2), 133-150.

Mohamed Isa, Z., Mohamad Radzi, N., Riang, V., Kastari, M. A., & Zainuddin, N. F. (2015). The levels and criterias of print concept of preschool children in Malaysia. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 4, 53-67. https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/SAECJ/article/view/971

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). 2000. http://www.naeyc.org

Neuman, S. B., & Celano, D. (2001). Access to print in low‐income and middle‐income communities: An ecological study of four neighborhoods. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(1), 8-26. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.36.1.1

Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low‐income families. Child development, 76(4), 763-782. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00498-i1

Piasta, S. B., Justice, L. M., McGinty, A. S., & Kaderavek, J. N. (2012). Increasing young children’s contact with print during shared reading: Longitudinal effects on literacy achievement. Child development, 83(3), 810-820. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01754.x

Polat, Ö. (2019). Türkiye’de okul öncesi eğitimin genel durum. Testfen Yayın Grubu.

Puranik, C. S., Lonigan, C. J., & Kim, Y. S. (2011). Contributions of emergent literacy skills to name writing, letter writing, and spelling in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(4), 465-474.

Puranik, C. S., & Lonigan, C. J. (2012). Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 284-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.09.003

Treiman, R., Kessler, B., & Bourassa, D. (2001). Children's own names influence their spelling. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22(4), 555.

Sandai, R., Abdullah, A., & Palmer, G. (2013). Enhancing Iban children’s emergent literacy and cultural awareness through traditional literature. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 2, 25-37. https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/SAECJ/article/view/921

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. National Academy Press.

Snow, C., Griffin, P., & Burns, S. (Eds.). (2005). Knowledge to support the teaching of reading: Preparing teachers for a changing world. Jossey-Bass.

Springate, K.W. (1983). Developmental trends and interrelation- ships among preprimary children’s knowledge of writing and reading readiness skills (Report No. CS 208 870). Doctoral dissertation, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 258 178)

Steensel, R. (2006). Relations between socio‐cultural factors, the home literacy environment and children's literacy development in the first years of primary education. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(4), 367-382. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00301.x

Stipek, D. J., & Ryan, R. H. (1997). Economically disadvantaged preschoolers: Ready to learn but further to go. Developmental Psychology. 33(4), 711. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.4.711

Strickland, D., & Schickedanz, J. (2009). Phonemic awareness: Moving from oral language to beginning links with print. In Learning about print in preschool (pp. 45-66). International Reading Association.

Strickland, D. S., & Shanahan, T. (2004). Laying the groundwork for literacy. Educational Leadership, 61(6), 74-77.

Sulzby, E. (1985). Kindergartners as writers and readers. In M. Farr (Ed.), Advances in writing research: Vol 1. Children’s early writing development (pp. 127–199). Norwood, NJ: Ablex

Şimşek, Ö. (2011). Examination of the effect of the literacy preparation program on the development of print awareness and writing preparation skills of 60-72 months old children, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara

Şimşek Çetin, Ö. (2015). A study of print awareness in preschool children in terms of maternal reading beliefs and age, gender, type of school variables. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 7 (2), 102-111. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2015.02.008

Tolchinsky-Landsmann, L., & Levin, I. (1985). Writing in preschoolers: An age-related analysis. Applied Psycholinguistics, 6(3), 319-339.

Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2003). The role of letter names in the acquisition of literacy. In R. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 31, pp. 105–135). AcademicPress.

Umek, L., Podlesek, A., & Fekonja, U. (2005). Assessing the home literacy environment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21(4), 271-281.

Villaume, S. K., & Wilson, L. C. (1989). Preschool children's explorations of letters in their own names. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10(3), 283-300.

Welsch, J. G., Sullivan, A., & Justice, L. M. (2003). That's my letter!: What preschoolers' name writing representations tell us about emergent literacy knowledge. Journal of Literacy Research, 35(2), 757-776. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15548430jlr3502_4

Wimmer, H., & Mayringer, H. (2002). Dysfluent reading in the absence of spelling difficulties: A specific disability in regular orthographies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 272–277. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.94.2.272

Published
2021-11-23
How to Cite
Altındağ Kumaş, Özlem, Sümer Dodur, H. M., & Yüzbaşıoğlu, Y. (2021). The impact of the name writing skill in preschool children on print knowledge, alphabet knowledge, and phonological awareness: The case of Turkey. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 10(2), 147-161. https://doi.org/10.37134/saecj.vol10.2.10.2021