A case for the reconceptualisation of autism in Vietnam
This integrative literature review presents the analysis of social stigmas surrounding autism as being a valuable and effective way of understanding current conceptualisations of autism in Vietnam. Social stigmas are negative perceptions directed towards groups within a population who are perceived to differ from what is considered the societal norm, and are explored in this integrative literature review through the thematic analysis of articles, blog posts, and published interviews. This review explores how social stigmas are developed and maintained, framed within Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, and provides a conceptual framework to understand how an increase of tolerance for autism can be encouraged. Encouraging tolerance through the tackling of social stigma maintenance can be achieved in a culturally sensitive manner, shown through the consideration of individual experiences of those within the autism community in Vietnam. Other previously stigmatised topics have been shown to have changed in recent Vietnamese society as now being more tolerated and accepted within society, suggesting that internal and external influences can bring about an increase in tolerance. The encouragement of a more flexible and tolerant view of autism could be brought about through a combined effort between the State and the media, education and the service sector, whilst prioritising the opinions of those within the autism community in Vietnam. A holistic approach to increasing tolerance, such as through the framework explored in this review, must be developed in order to be successful.
Ahmad, M. (2015). Parents of children with learning disabilities: Factors preventing parents from getting learning support. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 4, 68-80. https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/SAECJ/article/view/975
Aival-Naveh, E., Rothschild‐Yakar, L., & Kurman, J. (2019). Keeping culture in mind: A systematic review and initial conceptualization of mentalizing from a cross‐cultural perspective. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 26(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12300
Allam, F. C., & Martin, M. M. (2021). Issues and challenges in special education: A qualitative analysis from teacher’s perspective. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 10(1), 37-49. https://doi.org/10.37134/saecj.vol10.1.4.2021
Asia Times Staff. (2018). Lack of care for autistic children in Vietnam causes concern. Asia Times. https://asiatimes.com/2018/12/lack-of-care-for-autistic-children-in-vietnam-causes-concern/
Appy, C.G. What was the Vietnam War about? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/26/opinion/what-was-the-vietnam-war-about.html
Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Auyeung, B., Ashwin, E., Chakrabarti, B., & Knickmeyer, R. (2011). Why are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in males? PLoS Biology, 9(6), e1001081. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081
British Educational Research Association. (2018). Ethical guidelines for educational research, fourth edition. https://www.bera.ac.uk/publication/ethical-guidelines-for-educational-research-2018
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological Systems Theory. In Vasta, Ross (ed.). Annals of child development: Vol. 6. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Choudry, A. A., & Vally, S. (Eds.). (2018). Reflections on knowledge, learning and social movements: History’s schools (1st edition). Routledge.
Chu, L. (2018). The quest for research on social class in contemporary Vietnam. Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 13(1), 42–79. https://doi.org/10.1525/jvs.2018.13.1.42
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th Ed). Routledge.
Christensen, J. (2016). A critical reflection of Bronfenbrenner’s Development Ecology Model. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 69(22).
D’Antonio, E., & Shin, J. Y. (2009). Families of children with intellectual disabilities in Vietnam: Emerging themes. In International Review of Research in Mental Retardation (38), 93–123. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7750(08)38004-5
DA Pam. (1989). Vietnam a country study. United States Government as represented by the Secretary of the Army.
DTI News. (2011). What’s wrong with being Nha Que? Dti News. http://dtinews.vn/en/news/027/9579/what-s-wrong-with-being-nha-que-.html
Dudley, J. R. (2000). Confronting stigma within the services system. Social Work, 45(5), 449–455. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/45.5.449
Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y.-J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., Montiel-Nava, C., Patel, V., Paula, C. S., Wang, C., Yasamy, M. T., & Fombonne, E. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: Global epidemiology of autism. Autism Research, 5(3), 160–179. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.239
Ettakel, A. & Mahoney, J.L. (2017). Ecological Systems Theory. In K. Peppler, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning. SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483385198.n94
Gilmore, N., & Somerville, M. A. (1994). Stigmatization, scapegoating and discrimination in sexually transmitted diseases: Overcoming ‘them’ and ‘us’. Social Science & Medicine, 39(9), 1339–1358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90365-4
Guy-Evans, O. (2020, Nov 09). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/Bronfenbrenner.html
Ha, V. S., Whittaker, A., Whittaker, M., & Rodger, S. (2014). Living with autism spectrum disorder in Hanoi, Vietnam. Social Science & Medicine, 120, 278–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.038
Hammersley, M. (2012). Methodological paradigms in educational research. British Educational Research Association on-line resource. https://www.bera.ac.uk/publication/methodological-paradigms-in-educational-research
Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2020). Annual research review: Looking back to look
forward – changes in the concept of autism and implications for future research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61(3), 218–232. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13176
Haughton, J., Sun, W., & Loan, L. T. T. (2018). Discrimination against migrants in urban Vietnam. International Advances in Economic Research, 24(3), 211–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11294-018-9688-6
Hoang, V. M., Le, T. V., Chu, T. T. Q., Le, B. N., Duong, M. D., Thanh, N. M., Tac Pham, V., Minas, H., & Bui, T. T. H. (2019). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders and their relation to selected socio-demographic factors among children aged 18–30 months in northern Vietnam, 2017. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0285-8
Honeybourne, V. (2018). Neurodiversity: The new ‘normal’. Independent Autism Outreach Teacher and author. https://network.autism.org.uk/sites/default/files/ckfinder/files/Neurodiversity%20t he%20new%20normal.pdf
Huang, Y.-P., Kellett, U. M., & St John, W. (2010). Cerebral palsy: Experiences of mothers after learning their child’s diagnosis: Learning child’s diagnosis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(6), 1213–1221. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05270.x
Jayakody, R., & Phuong, P. T. T. (2013). Social change and fathering: Change or continuity in Vietnam? Journal of Family Issues, 34(2), 228–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X12461618
Jones, R. S. P., Quigney, C., & Huws, J. C. (2003). First-hand accounts of sensory perceptual experiences in autism: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 28(2), 112–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/1366825031000147058
Kapp, S. K., Steward, R., Crane, L., Elliott, D., Elphick, C., Pellicano, E., & Russell, G. (2019). ‘People should be allowed to do what they like’: Autistic adults’ views and experiences of stimming. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 23(7), 1782–1792. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361319829628
Karimi, P., Kamali, E., Mousavi, S., & Karahmadi, M. (2017). Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 22(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-1995.200272
Kenny, L., Hattersley, C., Molins, B., Buckley, C., Povey, C., & Pellicano, E. (2016).
Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community. Autism, 20(4), 442–462. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361315588200
Kien, T. T. (2020). Tín hiệu vui cho trẻ tự kỷ. Vinmec International Hospital. https://www.vinmec.com/en/tin-tuc/thong-tin-suc-khoe/nhi/tin-hieu-vui-cho-tre-tu-ky/
Lai, M.-C., Kassee, C., Besney, R., Bonato, S., Hull, L., Mandy, W., Szatmari, P., & Ameis, S. H. (2019). Prevalence of co-occurring mental health diagnoses in the autism population: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(10), 819–829. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30289-5
Lich, N., Ngoc, L., & Tung, T. (2014, July 24). Parents of autistic children in Vietnam livid about lack of educational resources. Thanh Nien News. http://www.thanhniennews.com/education-youth/parents-of-autistic-children-in-vietnam-livid-about-lack-of-educational-resources-29016.html
Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 363–385. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.363
Mandell, D. S. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116(6), 1480–1486. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0185
McCann, L. (2020). Preparing an autism friendly primary classroom. Reachout ASC. https://reachoutasc.com/preparing-an-autism-friendly- classroom/
Meekosha, H., & Soldatic, K. (2011). Human rights and the Global South: The case of disability. Third World Quarterly, 32(8), 1383–1397. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2011.614800
National Institute of Mental Health. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtml
Ngan, N. (2016). Law on Child Affairs, no. 102/2016/QH13, Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs. http://english.molisa.gov.vn/Pages/Document/Detail.aspx?Id=37234
Nguyen, T. X. T. (2012). Policy, power, and the paradigm shift in the Vietnamese discourses of disability and inclusion. McGill University. https://escholarship.mcgill.ca/concern/theses/3197xq729
Nguyen, T. Q., & Blum, R. W. (2014). Homosexuality tolerance among male and female Vietnamese youth: An examination of traditional sexual values, self-esteem, and demographic/contextual characteristics. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(6), 823–829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.07.011
Nguyen, X. T., Mitchell, C., de Lange, N., & Fritsch, K. (2015). Engaging girls with disabilities in Vietnam: Making their voices count. Disability & Society, 30(5), 773–787. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2015.1051515
Nishijo, M., Pham, T. T., Nguyen, A. T. N., Tran, N. N., Nakagawa, H., Hoang, L. V., Tran, A. H., Morikawa, Y., Ho, M. D., Kido, T., Nguyen, M. N., Nguyen, H. M., & Nishijo, H. (2014). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in breast milk increases autistic traits of 3-year-old children in Vietnam. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(11), 1220–1226. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2014.18
Park, H. R., Lee, J. M., Moon, H. E., Lee, D. S., Kim, B.-N., Kim, J., Kim, D. G., & Paek, S. H. (2016). A short review on the current understanding of autism spectrum disorders. Experimental Neurobiology, 25(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.5607/en.2016.25.1.1
Pham, M. M., Mai, P. T., Le, T. T., Nguyen, D. T., & Tran, C. V. (2020). Inclusive education for students with autism spectrum disorder in elementary schools in Vietnam: The current situation and solutions. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 12(3), 265–273. https://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2020358220
Phan, H., Freidman, A. & Lien, N.Q. (2020). Report on reviewing Vietnam’s Law on persons with disabilities in comparison with the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and international best practices. UNDP.
Pinquart, M., & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1), 75–100. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000149
Ritter, A. B., Terjesen, M. D., & Khuc, T. N. (2019). Autism in Vietnam: Knowledge, training, and communication barriers among professionals, educators, and caregivers. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 7(2), 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2019.1572554
Robinson, K.A., Akinyede, O., Dutta, T., Sawin, V.I., Li. T., Spencer, M.R., Turkelson, C.M. & Weston, C. (2013). Framework for determining research gaps during systematic review: Evaluation. Methods Research Report. Agency for Health care Research and Quality.
Rosenthal, E. (2009). The rights of children with disabilities in Vietnam. UNICEF. https://www.driadvocacy.org/wp-content/uploads/UNICEF_final_legal_analysis_report_in_Vietnam2.pdf
Russell, C. (2005). An overview of the integrative research review. Progress in Transplantation, 15(1), 8–13. https://doi.org/10.7182/prtr.15.1.0n13660r26g725kj
Silberman, S. (2015). Neurotribes: The legacy of autism and the future of neurodiversity New York: Avery, an imprint of Penguin Random House.
Stellman, J. M., & Stellman, S. D. (2018). Agent orange during the Vietnam War: The lingering issue of its civilian and military health impact. American Journal of Public Health, 108(6), 726–728. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304426
Strauss, E. (2020) How parents shape their children’s mental health. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/10/04/health/childrens-mental-health-wellness/index.html
Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1998b). Education Law (No. 11/1998/QH10). Socialist Republic of Vietnam. http://www.unescap.org/esid/psis/population/database/poplaws/law_viet/vi_034.htm
Socialist Republic of Vietnam, The National Assembly. (2010). Law on Persons with Disabilities. Socialist Republic of Vietnam. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_174606.pdf
Tick, B., Bolton, P., Happé, F., Rutter, M., & Rijsdijk, F. (2016). Heritability of autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis of twin studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(5), 585–595. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12499
Tran, K. T., Le, V. S., Bui, H. T. P., Do, D. H., Ly, H. T. T., Nguyen, H. T., Dao, L. T. M., Nguyen, T. H., Vu, D. M., Ha, L. T., Le, H. T. T., Mukhopadhyay, A., & Nguyen, L. T. (2020). Genetic landscape of autism spectrum disorder in Vietnamese children. Scientific Reports, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61695-8
Waller, R., Hyde, L. W., Baskin-Sommers, A. R., & Olson, S. L. (2017). Interactions between callous unemotional behaviors and executive function in early childhood predict later aggression and lower peer-liking in late-childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(3), 597–609. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0184-2
Vezne, R., & Sardohan Yıldırım, E. (2022). Unpacking early memories: Pre-school teacher candidates’ attitudes towards special needs. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 11(1), 61-75. https://doi.org/10.37134/saecj.vol126.96.36.1992
Vietnam Autism Projects. (2020). https://vaps-vn.com/blogs/vaps-stories/con-tu-ky-va-su-tram-cam-cua-me
Vietnam Autism Projects. (2020). https://vaps-vn.com/blogs/vaps-stories/ta-ma
Vietnam Autism Projects. (2020). https://vaps-vn.com/blogs/vaps-stories/su-thay-doi-cua-me-tu-ky
Vietnam Autism Projects. (2020). https://vaps-vn.com/blogs/vaps-stories/vaps-diary
VTV World. (2019). Vietnamese mother on raising a child with autism [Video File]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0u9OFzzx1I
Wolff, S., & Chess, S. (1964). A behavioural study of schizophrenic children. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 40(4), 438–466. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1964.tb07496.x
Ying, K. C., Browne, G., Hutchinson, M., Cashin, A., & Binh, B. V. (2012). Autism in Vietnam: The case for the development and evaluation of an information book to be distributed at the time of diagnosis. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(5), 288–292. https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2011.653039
Copyright (c) 2022 Leoni Boyle, Julie Bailey
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.