Satu Tinjauan Muzikologi Lagu Melayu Asli

  • Chamil Arkhasa Nikko Mazlan Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Mohd Hassan Abdullah Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Suflan Faidzal Arshad Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Mohd Khair Abdul Latif Akademi Seni Budaya dan Warisan Kebangsaan, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • Ramlan Mohd Imam Akademi Seni Budaya dan Warisan Kebangsaan, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • Isyam Swardy Daud Akademi Seni Budaya dan Warisan Kebangsaan, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Keywords: analisis dokumen, lagu Melayu asli, muzikologi, muzik tradisional Malaysia, pendidikan muzik, Malay Asli song, Malaysian traditional music, music education, musicology, systematic review

Abstract

Kajian mengenai muzik tradisional semakin mendapat tempat dalam kalangan para sarjana, khususnya melibatkan salah satu muzik Malaysia, iaitu lagu Melayu Asli. Hasilnya, terdapat banyak artikel yang mengkaji lagu Melayu Asli, baik dari kaca mata instrumentalis mahupun dari sudut nyanyian vokal. Artikel ini melampirkan tinjauan dalam lagu Melayu Asli, berfokuskan pada ciri-ciri yang terkandung di dalamnya. Metodologi yang digunakan untuk meninjau ciri lagu Melayu Asli ini menggunakan analisis dokumen kualitatif dengan pendekatan analisis kandungan daripada artikel dan diskografi lagu Melayu Asli. Bagi meningkatkan kesahan dapatan yang diperolehi daripada artikel dan diskografi, triangulasi dilakukan dengan kaedah temu bual. Rumusannya, ciri-ciri umum lagu Melayu Asli boleh dilihat dari aspek berikut: struktur asal komposisi lagu Melayu Asli berasaskan struktur AB, kemudian ditambah dengan bahagian intro, interlud dan outro. Rentak asli atau senandung ini dimainkan dalam tempo yang perlahan, sekitar 55 sehingga 75 bit per minit. Akhir sekali, ciri yang harus ada dalam komposisi lagu Melayu Asli ialah melodi pengantar lagu, iaitu satu rangkai melodi pendek yang dimainkan sebelum atau selepas melodi utama atau melodi nyanyian. Ciri pengantar lagu ini juga seperti fungsi counter-melody yang melengkapi melodi utama dalam lagu Melayu Asli. 

 

Abstract

In recent years, studies in traditional music have become popular amongst scholars, particularly of Malaysia's traditional music, Malay Asli song, known as lagu Melayu Asli. Hence this led the researchers to a piece of the vast information available regarding Malays Asli songs, either from the standpoint of the instrumentalist or in the context of singing techniques. This paper aims to generate a comprehensive description of the elements of music in Malay Asli Songs. To reorganise this information, the researchers conducted a literature review to examine the characteristic of a musical norm in Malay Asli song using qualitative document analysis as our methodology. All related documents such as articles and discography of the Malay Asli song were examined using content analysis technique. To triangulate the data, a semi-structured interview was done. An overview of the main elements of Malay Asli song is provided, discussed in the aspects of rhythm, meter, tempo, timbre, harmony and melodies. To conclude our discussion, most dominant elements in any Malay Asli song can be seen from the following aspects: Malay Asli song musical structure is based on AB form, then added with the intro, interlude and outro. Malay Asli song being played in a slow tempo, around 55 to 75 beats per minute. This slow tempo known as asli or senandung. Finally, a must have feature that should be present in the composition of Malay Asli song, pengantar lagu, a short counter-melody lines, being played before or after the main melodies. Furthermore, in the final section, we offering some recommendations for future research.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdullah, A. (2015, September 11). Martabat lagu Melayu Asli di DFP. Harian Metro. https://www.hmetro.com.my/node/76798

Abu Bakar, N. A. (2014). Modul asas pengajaran dan pembelajaran nyanyian lagu Melayu Asli. [Master’s thesis, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris]. Repository Khazanah Melayu. http://melayu.library.uitm.edu.my/1743/1/MODUL%20ASAS%20PENGAJARAN%20DAN%20PEMBELAJARAN%20NYANYIAN%20LAGU%20MELAYU%20ASLI.pdf

Ahmed, I. & Kechot, A. S. (2015). Lagu Melayu asli: Unsur sinkretisme dalam instrumentasi persembahan. Jurnal Melayu, 14(2), 307-327. http://ejournals.ukm.my/jmelayu/article/download/11451/3712

Alimi, K. F. & Kassin, T. A. (2018). Proses penengahan vokal rendah/a/dalam lagu Melayu Asli. Jurnal Linguistik, 22(1), 49-61. https://ejurnal.plm.org.my/index.php/jurnallinguistik/article/download/47/39

Arshad, S. F. (2015). Manual asas permainan lagu Melayu asli secara instrumental. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Akademi Seni Budaya dan Warisan Kebangsaan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ayderova, V., Wong, H. Y. @ C., Augustine, C., & Arshad, S. F. (2020). Learning ornament signs through transcriptions of Malaysian folk songs in an applied music course. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(5), 381–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i5/7209

Azrael667, (2014, November 17). Re: 8/4 time signature. Ultimate-Guitar Forum. https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/showthread.php?t=1661815

Bahasuan, M. A. (2003). The Malay culture and its evolution. http://www.srimahligai.com/articles/malay_music_culture.htm

Berklee Online. (2018, April 5). What is timbre? Beginner, music production, berklee online [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjJLAcDb_MU

BERNAMA. (2015, September 21). Memartabat lagu Melayu asli ke persada antarabangsa. JKKN. http://www.jkkn.gov.my/en/memartabat-lagu-melayu-asli-ke-persada-antarabangsa

Chase, S. (2020, Oktober 17). What is texture in music? A complete guide. Hello Music Theory. https://hellomusictheory.com/learn/texture/

Clark, V. L. P., & Creswell, J. W. (2015). Understanding research: A consumer's guide. Pearson Higher Ed.

Creswell, J. W. & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Sage Publication.

Creswell, J. W. & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Sage Publication.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2016). 30 essential skills for the qualitative researcher. Sage Publication.

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (n.d.). Tempo. Kamus Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. http://prpm.dbp.gov.my/cari1?keyword=tempo

Feezell, M. (2011). Music theory fundamentals: High-yield music theory (Vol. 1). http://kutubxona.adu.uz/kutubxona/19musictheoryfundamentalspdf.pdf

Hashim, M. N. (2012). Variation of Malay Asli music: There is no ‘right or wrong’. In Loo, F. Y., Hashim, M. N. & Loo, F. C. (Eds.), Essays on issues in music and its function: UM book Series on Research in Musicology 4. (pp. 1-17). Lambert Academic Publishing. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Zaharul_Saidon2/publication/294088667_Developing_Malaysian_High_School_Marching_Bands_Issues_Challenges_and_Strategies/links/56bdf22e08ae44da37f88393.pdf#page=16

Irving, D. R. (2014) Hybridity and harmony: Nineteenth-century British discourse on syncretism and intercultural compatibility in Malay music. Indonesia and the Malay World, 42(123), 197-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2014.912408

Isyak, F. N. (2018) Oral transmission and stylistic issues in Malay Asli Song in Johor. [Master’s thesis, Universiti Malaya]. University of Malaya Students Repository. http://studentsrepo.um.edu.my/8949/2/NIDZAM_FINAL_20APRIL2018.pdf

Jazz_rock_feel. (2014, November 17). Re: 8/4 time signature. Ultimate-guitar forum. https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/showthread.php?t=1661815

Karim, M. K. (2016). Inspirasi penciptaan komposisi muzik Ghamuhyi: Sebuah karya muzik baharu bersumber dari muzik tradisional ghazal Melayu Johor. Malaysian Journal of Music, 5(1), 74-91. https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/MJM/article/view/816/552

Kostka, S. M., Payne, D., Almen, B. (2012). Tonal harmony with introduction to twentieth-century music (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Manoharan, P., Sulong, M. A., Raja Adnan, R. A. N. (2009). HBMS4203 Muzik Tradisional. Open Universiti Malaysia. http://s206.oum.edu.my/pluginfile.php/6163/course/overviewfiles/04%20HBMS4203%20CG.pdf?forcedownload=1

Matusky, P. (1985). An introduction to the major instruments and forms of traditional Malay music. Asian Music, 16(2), 121-182. https://doi.org/10.2307/833774

Matusky, P., & Tan, S. B. (2017). The music of Malaysia: The classical, folk and syncretic traditions. Taylor & Francis.

Mazlan, C. A. N. & Abdullah, M. H. (2020). Utilizing pragmatism principles in learning jazz guitar reharmonization technique using Malay Asli song. International Journal of Applied and Creative Arts, 3(1), 54-66. https://doi.org/10.33736/ijaca.2188.2020

Mazlan, C. A. N. (2016). Perkembangan kord dalam improvisasi gitar. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia.

Mohd Rosly, N. S. R. (2018). Kajian ornamentasi dalam muzik Melayu Asli: Permainan violin gaya Hamzah Dolmat. [Master’s thesis, Universiti Malaya]. University of Malaya Students Repository. http://studentsrepo.um.edu.my/8607/3/NIK_SHAREENA_ROSNY_FULL_THESIS_FINAL.pdf

Mohd Shah, S. & Masumi, M. A. (2016). Teaching traditional music in Malaysian schools: Considering the cultural context. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 69-76. https://doi.org/10.18844/ijlt.v8i1.511

Mohd Shah, S. (2013). Contextualizing the transmission of Malaysian traditional music. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1000-1004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.318

Mrcupan. (2009, Mac 3). Sudirman - Damak [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrYFcZhxZC0

Nick. (2018, Januari 25). A beginner's guide to counter-melodies. Medium.com. https://medium.com/@NickEss/a-beginners-guide-to-counter-melodies-ebc5ae8b10cd

Nicksword87. (2014, November 17). Re: 8/4 time signature. Ultimate-Guitar Forum. https://www.ultimate-guitar.com/forum/showthread.php?t=1661815

Orduña-Malea, E., Martín-Martín, A., M. Ayllon, J. & Delgado López-Cózar, E. (2014), The silent fading of an academic search engine: The case of Microsoft Academic Search. Online Information Review, 38(7), 936-953. https://doi.org/10.1108/OIR-07-2014-0169

Peter. (2019, Mei 23). Re: Counting in 8 rather than 4/4. Stack Exchange. https://music.stackexchange.com/questions/85142/counting-in-8-rather-than-4-4

Pilhofer, M., & Day, H. (2019). Music theory for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.

Pillai, S. (2013). Syncretic cultural multivocality and the malaysian popular musical imagination. Kajian Malaysia: Journal of Malaysian Studies, 31(1), 1-18. http://web.usm.my/km/31(1)2013/KM%2031(1)%20ART%201%20(1-18).pdf

Ritawati, T. (2017). The original of Malay songs (OMS) as the symbolism of Malay cultural heritage. International Journal of Social Sciences, 49(1). 67-72. http://tijoss.com/49th%20volume%20tijoss/6.pdf

Rizaldi. (2010, Ogos 26). Melakukan perubahan tanpa merusak tradisi dalam konteks aransemen musik Melayu. Blogspot. http://rizaldiisipadangpanjang.blogspot.com/2010/08/melakukan-perubahan-tanpa-merusak.html

Santai Minda. (2012, November 12). Irama Tradisional - Damak (Asli) 1080p [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4tVZOWc2T0

Schmidt-Jones, C. (2012). The basic elements of music. Connexions. http://www.uilis.unsyiah.ac.id/oer/files/original/37f9c950bbcc53eb2778fad5929a99c7.pdf

Silahudin, S. (2010). Nyanyian Melayu Asli sebagai warisan manifestasi kesenian Melayu: Tumpuan pandangan pemikir-pemikir budaya. In Ahmad, M. N. & Hamidon, N. A. (Eds.) Monograf: Jabatan Kesenian Melayu 2010. Akademi Pengajian Melayu, Universiti Malaya. https://www.academia.edu/3657136/Nyanyian_Melayu_Asli_Sebagai_Warisan_Manifestasi_Kesenian_Melayu_Tumpuan_Pandangan_Pemikir-Pemikir_Budaya

Silahudin, S. (2013). Nyanyian Melayu Asli: Vokalisasi serta peranan korda dan larinks. Prosiding Persidangan Kearifan Tempatan: Pengalamanan Nusantara (Jilid 2), 2-37. https://www.academia.edu/3792386/Nyanyian_Melayu_Asli_Vokalisasi_Serta_Peranan_Korda_Vokal_dan_Larinks

SuriaRecordsSRC. (2013, Oktober 7). Siti Nurhaliza - Damak (Official Video - HD) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlBpyvqxDsQ

SuriaRecordsSRC. (2013, Oktober 7). Siti Nurhaliza - Patah (Official Video - HD) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1_3TW5kJwc

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (June 27, 2013). Metre. Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/art/metre-music

Tim. (2020, Mei 17). Re: Is 8/4 signature a thing? Music: Practice & theory stack exchange. https://music.stackexchange.com/questions/99706/is-8-4-time-signature-a-thing#comment172078_99706

Wright, C. [Chris Wright]. (2016, Januari 28). What is Tone Color? (Timbre) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tGEDgkZlC8

Za’Ba, N., Jamil, N., Salleh, S. S., Abdul Rahman, N. (2011). Investigating ornamentation in Malay traditional, asli music. http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2011/Montreux/COMICICBIO/COMICICBIO-06.pdf

Published
2020-12-10
How to Cite
Mazlan, C. A. N., Abdullah, M. H., Arshad, S. F., Abdul Latif, M. K., Mohd Imam, R., & Daud, I. S. (2020). Satu Tinjauan Muzikologi Lagu Melayu Asli. Jurai Sembah, 1(2), 14-26. https://doi.org/10.37134/juraisembah.vol1.2.2.2020
Section
Articles