The Role of Senior Leader Team on The Formative Assessment Practices among Primary School Teachers in Petaling


  • Nadiah Jahidin Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA, MALAYSIA
  • Yuen Fook Chan Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA, MALAYSIA



role of leaders, formative assessment practices, teachers, assessment for learning


Formative assessment has become a most discussed topic when many countries recognized the importance of assessment for learning in enhancing students’ holistic development. Most of the times, teachers are not quite clear with the differences between assessment of learning and assessment for learning. In Malaysia, teachers still feel uncomfortable with the implementation of formative assessment compared to summative assessment due to the heavy workload to prepare the tests by themselves. Hence, this study was conducted to examine the role of leaders and how the leader’s role was associated with teachers’ formative assessment practices in schools. An online questionnaire was administered to a total of 198 randomly selected teachers from 25 public primary schools in Petaling. A descriptive correlational research design was employed to identify the relationship between these two variables. The findings indicated that there was a moderately strong linear relationship between the role of the leaders and teachers’ formative assessment practices in schools. The study also revealed that the role of leaders has significantly predicted the teachers’ formative assessment practices with 20.4% of contribution.  The findings showed that teachers’ practices in formative assessment process still far from much desired, and leaders still need to further enhance their implementation of formative assessment in school. Overall, this study has its contribution for the enrichment of the body of knowledge of formative assessment and provided insights for the improvement of the implementation of formative assessment in schools.


Download data is not yet available.


Abiog, E. (2022). Strengthening Adult Education: An Assessment of Technical and Vocational Texts. Asian Journal of Vocational Education And Humanities, 3(1), 33-41.

Beach, D. M., & Reinhartz, J. (1989). Supervision: Focus on instruction. Harper & Row.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 5(1), 7-74.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998b). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80, 139-48.

Bunyi, G. W. (2013). The quest for quality education: the case of curriculum innovations in Kenya. European Journal of Training and Development.

Bonner, D. P. (2012). The Impact of Formative Assessment on Student Learning and Teacher Instruction. Educational Leadership, 22-31.

Brookhart, S., Moss, C., & Long, B. (2009). Promoting student ownership of learning through high-impact formative assessment practices. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 6(12), 52-67.

Chappuis, J. (2022). Student involvement in assessment. Routledge.

Chappuis, S., & Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Classroom assessment for learning. Educational leadership, 60(1), 40-44. Scribbr.

Chin, H., Thien, L. M., & Chiew, C. M. (2019). The reforms of national assessments in Malaysian education system. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 4(1), 93-111.

Clark, C., Scafidi, B., & Swinton, J. R. (2012). Does AP Economics improve student achievement?. The American Economist, 57(1), 1-20.

Cornelius, K. E. (2013). Formative assessment made easy: Templates for collecting daily data in inclusive classrooms. Teaching exceptional children, 45(5), 14-21.

Cotton, J. A. (2003). The instructional leadership proficiencies of elementary principals: A study of preparation and continuing professional development needs. The George Washington University.

DeWitt, P. M. (2017). School climate: Leading with collective efficacy. Corwin Press.

Duckor, B., Holmberg, C., & Joanne, R. B. (2017). Making moves: Formative assessment in mathematics. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 22(6), 334-342.

Earl, L. (2013). Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning. London: Corwin Press.

Engelking, J. L. (2007). Action-Oriented Principals: Facing the Demands of External Pressures. Rowman & Littlefield Education. Scribbr.

Erkens, C., & Jakicic, C. (2006). The collaborative teacher: Working together as a professional learning community. Solution Tree Press.

Farley, G. C. (2010). Instructional supervision: A descriptive study focusing on the observation and evaluation of teachers in cyberschools. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Gall, T. (2010). Inequality, incomplete contracts, and the size distribution of business firms. International Economic Review, 51(2), 335-364.

Gronlund, E. N., & Waugh, K. (2009). C, Assessment of Student Achievement, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio: Pearson Education.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Havnes, A., Smith, K., Dysthe, O., & Ludvigsen, K. (2012). Formative assessment and feedback: Making learning visible. Studies in educational evaluation, 38(1), 21-27.

Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework. Review of educational research, 86(2), 531-569.

Huff, J., Preston, C., Goldring, E., & Guthrie, J. E. (2018). Learning-centered leadership practices for effective high schools serving at-risk students. Teachers College Record, 120(9), 1-38.

Ismail, I., & Tini, T. (2020). The effect of formative assessment on students’ grades in learning English. MAJESTY JOURNAL, 2(1), 20-30.

Jorissen, K. T. (2006). 3 SKILLFUL MOVES to assessment for the busy principal. The Learning Professional, 27(1), 22.

Kenyon, B. J. (2019). Teachers' formative assessment use to check for understanding and to adjust instruction (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). Scribbr.

Knight, J. (2009). The big four: A simple and powerful framework to dramatically improve instruction. Strategram, 21(4), 1-7.

Knight, J. (2007). Instructional coaching: A partnership approach to improving instruction. Corwin Press.

Krejcie, R., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for reseach activities. Educational and Psycological Measurement, 607-610.

Lochmiller, C. R., & Cunningham, K. M. (2019). Leading learning in content areas: A systematic review of leadership practices used in mathematics and science instruction. International Journal of Educational Management.

MacNeill, N., Cavanagh, R., & Silcox, S. (2003, January). Beyond instructional leadership: Towards pedagogic leadership. In Paper submitted for presentation at the 2003 Annual conference for the Australian Association for Research in Education: Auckland.

MOE. M. o. (2013). Malaysia Edcation Blueprint 2013-2025 (Preshool to Post-Secondary Education). Ministry of Education Malaysia.

MOE, M. o. (2016). Kurikulum standard sekolah menengah: Standard kurikulum dan pentaksiran Matematik Tingkatan 1 [Secondary school standard curriculum: Form 1 Mathematics curriculum and assessment standard document]. Putrajaya: Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education.

MOE, M. o. (2017). Dasar pendidikan kebangsaan. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

MOE, M. o. (2018). Pemansuhan Amalan Peperiksaan Pertengahan dan Akhir Tahun Murid Tahap 1 (Tahun 1, Tahun 2 dan Tahun 3) di Sekolah Rendah Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Mulai tahun 2019. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

O'Donnell, R. J., & White, G. P. (2005). Within the accountability era: Principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. NASSP bulletin, 89(645), 56-71.

Oneal-Self, A. (2015). Formative assessment in the classroom: A phenomenological study of instructor perceptions of formative assessment strategies (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

Popham, W. J. (1999). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know. Allyn & Bacon, A Viacom Company, 160 Gould St., Needham Heights, MA 02194; Scribbr.

Privette, C. S. (2015). The Extent Principals Employ the Essential Practices Identified by Previous Research and Interpreted by the Researcher as Necessary for Strong Instructional Leadership in the Use of Formative Assessment by Teachers. ProQuest LLC, 1-127.

Sanzo, K. L., Myran, S., & Caggiano, J. (2014). Formative assessment leadership: Identify, plan, apply, assess, refine. Routledge.

Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional science, 18(2), 119-144.

Shauki, E., Alagiah, R., Fiedler, B., & Sawon, K. (2009). Do learner’s gender and ethnicity really matter for academic performance evaluation. Journal of International Education in Business.

Stanley, T., & Alig, J. (2013). The school leader's guide to formative assessment: using data to improve student and teacher achievement. Routledge.

Stiggins, R., & DuFour, R. (2009). Maximizing the power of formative assessments. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(9), 640-644.

Stiggins, R., & Duke, D. (2008). Effective instructional leadership requires assessment leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(4), 285-291.

Stiggins, R. J., Arter, J. A., Chappuis, J., & Chappuis, S. (2004). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right, using it well. Assessment Training Institute.

Stiggins, R. J. (2001). The principal's leadership role in assessment. NASSP bulletin, 85(621), 13-26.

Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership. Aurora, CO: McREL.

Wei, Y., Lai, X. Y., Li, X. Q., Zhang, P. X., Guo, J. H., & Nur Rahma Putra, A. B. (2022). An Assessment of Online Learning Competency among Students of Higher Vocational and Technical School in China. Journal of Technology and Humanities, 3(1), 17-25.

Wylie, C., & Lyon, C. (2016). Using the formative assessment rubrics, reflection and observation tools to support professional reflection on practice (Revised). Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers. USA: Educational Testing Service.




How to Cite

Jahidin, N., & Chan, Y. F. (2022). The Role of Senior Leader Team on The Formative Assessment Practices among Primary School Teachers in Petaling. Asian Journal of Assessment in Teaching and Learning, 12(2), 53–70.




Most read articles by the same author(s)