Study on upper air sounding data sensitivity towards thunderstorm activities over Kuching and Miri from 2010 to 2015

Kajian Sensitiviti Pencerapan Udara Atas terhadap Aktiviti Ribut Petir di Kuching dan Miri dari tahun 2010 hingga 2015

  • Noor Azam Shaari Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Noor Azra Ahim Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Phuang Eng Beng Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Siti Aizza Sarmani Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Alliscia Mandai Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Noor Fateen A’dila Abdul Shukur Malaysian Meteorological Department
  • Mohd Khairul Ikhwan Mohd Zawawi Malaysian Meteorological Department
Keywords: Thunderstorms, Phenomenon, Atmospheric Stability Indices, Correlation Coefficient


Severe thunderstorm and rainfall activities are dangerous to any humankind activities including the airport operations. Thorough studies about the thunderstorm activities at the airports are important for flight safety as scholars have attempted to understand thunderstorm behavior that is measured from atmospheric stability indices. The atmospheric stability indices at Kuching and Miri airports were analyzed to predict the precursor of the phenomenon and to improve the forecasting skills among the forecasters. The result shows that the stability indices suggested by the models were found not to be exclusive to represent the phenomenon that had occurred at some points. The phenomenon might not occur at all, although the index falls within the suggested model’s range. A linear relationship between any two models was analyzed to observe how they interact between them. A strong negative linear relationship between SI -TTI and CAPE-LI was found negative while TPW-KI was in a positive correlation coefficient value. The presence of the water content measured by TPW may provide some information about the precursor of the phenomenon at the airports. The index was found to be concentrated at some points during the phenomenon. Thus, TPW may be useful as the third indices to support the relationship between SI-TTI and CAPE-LI as thunderstorm predictions are made at the airports in the future.



Atmospheric Sounding. (2017). Retrieve from

Bhattacharya, R., & Bhattacharya, A. (2011). Stability parameters and their skill to forecast thunderstorm. International Journal of Physics, 4 (1), 21 – 30.

Galway, J. G. (1956). The lifted index as a predictor of latent instability. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 37, 528 – 529.

George, J. J. (1960). Weather forecasting for aeronautics. New York and London Academic Press, 407-415. Retrieved from

Gottlieb, R. J. & Wysocki, M. W. (2009). Analysis of stability indices for severe thunderstorms in the Northeastern United States (Unpublished master’s thesis).Cornell University.

Malaysian Meteorological Department. (2010). Training section, synoptic observationcodes (SYNOP, METAR & SPECI), Present Weather Code 4677.

Malaysian Meteorological Department. (2009). Forecasting guide manual. Nowcasting/Short Range Forecasting, 52 – 58.

Miller, R. C. (1967). Notes on analysis and severe storm forecasting procedures of the Military Weather Warning Center. Tech. Report 200, AWS, USAF. [Headquarters, AWS, Scott AFB, 1L 62225]

Moncrieff, M. W. & Miller, M. J. (1976). The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulonimbus and squall lines. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 102, 373 – 394.

Peppler, R. A. (1988). A review of static stability indices and related thermodynamic parameters. Illinois State Water Survey Miscellaneous Publication 104: 87.Retrieved from

Radiosonde Observation. (2017). Retrieved From

Shaari, N. A., Omar, A. R., Mat, T. M. A., Saad, M. S., Mohd Ludi, A. K., & Abd. Ghani, N. S. (2015). Study case: Study on data sounding sensitivity towards thunderstorm activities over Peninsular Malaysia during inter monsoon period from 2010 to 2014. Malaysian Meteorological Department, ISBN/ISSN:ISBN: 978-967-5676-69-7.

Showalter, A. K. (1953). A stability index for thunderstorm forecasting. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 34, 250 – 252.

Stull, R. (2017). Practical meteorology: An algebra-based survey of atmospheric science. Retrieved from

Thunderstorms Basic. (2017). The National Severe Storms Laboratory. Retrieved from

Viswanadham, Y. (1981). The relationship between total precipitable water and surface dew point. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 20 (1), 3 – 8.
How to Cite
Shaari, N. A., Ahim, N. A., Eng Beng, P., Sarmani, S. A., Mandai, A., Abdul Shukur, N. F. A., & Mohd Zawawi, M. K. I. (2020). Study on upper air sounding data sensitivity towards thunderstorm activities over Kuching and Miri from 2010 to 2015. GEOGRAFI, 8(1), 1-24.