The Hooray! Hooray! ABC: The evaluation of mobile application for preschool students


  • Noor Hidayah Che Lah Faculty of Computing and Meta-Technology, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Syazwan Mad Nor Faculty of Computing and Meta-Technology, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Hamirul Hamizan Roslan Faculty of Computing and Meta-Technology, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Amin Aiman Zulkifli Faculty of Computing and Meta-Technology, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia
  • Zaidatun Tasir School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
  • Suhaizal Hashim Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia
  • Ahmed Alkhayyat Faculty of Engineering, The Islamic University Najaf, Iraq
  • Wan Azani Wan Wan Mustafa Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, UniCITI Alam Campus, Perlis, Malaysia



mobile application, online learning, preschool, DDR, schools


Mobile applications are now being used for 21st-century learning, including alphabet learning. There are numerous mobile application products for online learning, particularly those relating to the alphabet ABC. It was revealed that previous mobile applications did not provide interactive activities that suited preschool students. Therefore, this study aims to develop Hooray! Hooray! ABC for learning the alphabet. This study employed Design and Development Research (DDR) as the research design, which is divided into three phases: Phase I - the needs of the application; Phase II - the design and development; and Phase III - the evaluation. ADDIE model is used as the instructional design to design and develop the mobile application. Two experts were chosen to validate the application. It was tested for usability and student performance on 35 preschool students. The results reveal that Hooray! Hooray! ABC can be used for learning the alphabet based on experts' agreement in terms of usefulness (96%), ease of use (97%), ease of learning (94%), and satisfaction (100%). In addition, the result shows that Hooray! Hooray! ABC can increase students' performance (t = 13.271, p = 0.00) in learning the alphabet, making it beneficial for preschool students, teachers, and schools. This study also acknowledged the limitations and future suggestions of this study.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul Ghafar, N., Rahmatullah, B., Razak, N. A., Abdul Muttallib, F. H., Adnan, M. H. M., & Sarah, L. L. (2023). Systematic literature review on digital courseware usage in Geography subjects for secondary school students. Journal of ICT in Education, 10(1), 26–39.

Abdulrahaman, M. D., Faruk, N., Oloyede, A. A., Surajudeen-Bakinde, N. T., Olawoyin, L. A., Mejabi, O. V., Imam-Fulani, Y.O., Fahm, A.O., & Azeez, A. L. (2020). Multimedia tools in the teaching and learning processes: A systematic review. Heliyon, 6(11).

Aborokbah, M. (2021). Using augmented reality to support children with dyslexia. International Journal of Cloud Computing, 10(1/2), 17-25.

Abrar, M.F., Islam, M.R., Hossain, M.S., Islam, M.M., & Kabir, M.A. (2019). Augmented reality in education: A study on preschool children, parents, and teachers in Bangladesh. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Applications and Case Studies, 11575.

Aburukba, R., Aloul, F., Mahmoud, A., Kamili, K., & Ajmal, S. (2017). AutiAid: A learning mobile application for autistic children, 2017 IEEE 19th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), Dalian, China, 1-6.

Al-Adwan, A. S., Li, N., Al-Adwan, A., Abbasi, G. A., Albelbisi, N. A., & Habibi, A. (2023). Extending the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to predict university students’ intentions to use Metaverse-based learning platforms. Education and Information Technologies, 28, 15381–15413.

Al-Fraihat, D., Joy, M., Masa’deh, R., & Sinclair, J. (2020). Evaluating e-learning systems success: An empirical study. Computers in Human Behavior, 102, 67-86.

Apaydin, Ç., & Kaya, F. (2020). An analysis of the preschool teachers' views on Alpha generation. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(11), 123-141.

Ayeni, O. A., Arome, G. J., & Eshowogafor, D. (2020). Development of an augmented reality based mobile application system for teaching alphabet. Journal on Mobile Applications and Technologies, 7(1), 10-16.

Azzahra, N. F., & Arrasyid, F. I. (2023). The development of flip book maker based e-module as learning media for beginner’s English course. Journal of Interdisciplinary Research Practice, 1(2), 66–76.

Brawerman, A., Bortoloti, C., Guimarães, L. B., Granato, L. C., Aroldi, M. D., & de Sauza, V. M. (2013). ABC game-educating through mobile devices. International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Blended Learning, 146-150.

Budoya, C., Kissaka, M., & Mtebe, J. (2019). Instructional design enabled agile method using ADDIE model and feature driven development process. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 15(1).

Cheah, C. S. (2022). The importance of multimedia elements in learning and the impact of redundancy principle in developing effective multimedia learning materials: A literature review. Journal of Educational Sciences & Psychology, 12(2), 3-12.

Cho, M. H., & Castañeda, D. A. (2019). Motivational and affective engagement in learning Spanish with a mobile application. System, 81, 90-99.

Coskun, A., & Cagiltay, K. (2022). A systematic review of eye-tracking-based research on animated multimedia learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(2), 581-598.

Čulig, F., & Čarapina, M. (2022). PISANKA: The mobile application for learning how to write uppercase letters. Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 4639-4646. IATED.

Dunn, T. J., & Kennedy, M. (2019). Technology Enhanced Learning in higher education; motivations, engagement and academic achievement. Computers & Education, 137, 104-113.

Ehri, L. C. (2022). What teachers need to know and do to teach letter–sounds, phonemic awareness, word reading, and phonics. The Reading Teacher, 76(1), 53-61.

Elaish, M. M., Ghani, N. A., Shuib, L., & Al-Haiqi, A. (2019). Development of a mobile game application to boost students’ motivation in learning English vocabulary. IEEE Access, 7, 13326-13337. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2891504

Fadhli, M., Sukirman, S., Ulfa, S., Susanto, H., & Syam, A. R. (2022). Gamifying children's linguistic intelligence with the Duolingo app: A case study from Indonesia. In Research Anthology on Developments in Gamification and Game-Based Learning, 1402-1415.

Felszeghy, S., Pasonen-Seppänen, S., Koskela, A., Nieminen, P., Härkönen, K., Paldanius, K. M., Gabbouj, S., Ketola, K., Hiltunen, M., Lundin, M., Haapaniemi, T., Sointu, E., Bauman, E. B., Gilbert, G.E., Morton, D., & Mahonen, A. (2019). Using online game-based platforms to improve student performance and engagement in histology teaching. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 273.

Gerde, H. K. (2019). Current practices for teaching letter and letter sound knowledge in preschool including strategies for improving instruction in these areas. HS Dialog: The Research to Practice Journal for the Early Childhood Field, 22(2), 76-83.

Ghani, M. T. A., & Daud, W. A. A. W. (2018). Adaptation of ADDIE instructional model in developing educational website for language learning. Global Journal Al-Thaqafah, 8(2), 7-16.

Giuffre, L. (2021). Bluey, Requestival, Play School and ME@Home: The ABC (kids) of communication cultures during lockdown. Media International Australia, 178(1), 63-76.

Gözüm, A. İ. C., & Kandır, A. (2021). Digital games pre-schoolers play: parental mediation and examination of educational content. Education and Information Technologies, 26(3), 3293–3326.

Hoi, V. N. (2020). Understanding higher education learners’ acceptance and use of mobile devices for language learning: A Rasch-based path modeling approach. Computers & Education, 146, 103761.

Hu, X., Chiu, M. M., Leung, W. M. V., & Yelland, N. (2021). Technology integration for young children during Covid-19: Towards future online teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(4), 1513-1537.

Islam, S., Baharun, H., Muali, C., Ghufron, M. I., el Iq Bali, M., Wijaya, M., & Marzuki, I. (2018, November). To boost students’ motivation and achievement through blended learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114, 1, 012046. IOP Publishing.

Jamal Abd Nasir, N. N. (2013). D-Lexis: Alphabet mobile learning application for dyslexia based on Slingerland methods of learning. [Final Year Project, Universiti Teknologi Petronas]. UTPEDIA

Jaya, S., Zaharudin, R., Hashim, N. A., Zaid, S. M., Ithnin, M. A., Mapjabil, J., & Nordin, M. N. (2021). Employing Design and Development Research (DDR) approach in designing Next Generation Learning Spaces (NGLS) in teachers' pedagogy and technology tools. Review of International Geographical Education Online, 11(7).

Kay, D., & Pasarica, M. (2019). Using technology to increase student (and faculty satisfaction with) engagement in medical education. Advances in Physiology Education, 43(3), 408-413.

Khan, N., Sarwar, A., Chen, T. B., & Khan, S. (2022). Connecting digital literacy in higher education to the 21st century workforce. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 14(1), 46-61.

Klimova, B. (2019). Impact of mobile learning on students’ achievement results. Education Sciences, 9(2), 90.

Kokkalia, G. K., & Drigas, A. S. (2016). Mobile learning for special preschool education. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 10(1).

Korenova, L., Kostolanyova, K., Gasparova, E., & Liskova, D. (2019). The use of digital and mobile technologies. 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. 7772-7779.

Lasdya, D., Pebriana, P. H., Rizal, M. S., Abbas, E. W., & Rusmaniah, R. (2022). Improving beginning reading skills using word card media for grade 1 students at SDN 004 SALO. The Innovation of Social Studies Journal, 3(2), 83-91.

Li, H., Zhang, T., Woolley, J. D., An, J., & Wang, F. (2023). Exploring factors influencing young children’s learning from storybooks: Interactive and multimedia features. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 233, 105680.

Masli, M. A., & Husain, N. M. (2022). Pembangunan aplikasi mudah-alih untuk diet kanak-kanak (MyKidsNutri): Development of a mobile application for children dietary (MyKidsNutri). Journal of ICT in Education, 9(3), 41–50.

Mashrah, H. T. (2017). The impact of adopting and using technology by children. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 11(1), 35-40.

Nicholls, D., Sweet, L., Muller, A., & Hyett, J. (2016). Teaching psychomotor skills in the twenty-first century: Revisiting and reviewing instructional approaches through the lens of contemporary literature. Medical Teacher, 38(10), 1056-1063.

Opu, M. N. I., Islam, M. R., Kabir, M. A., Hossain, M. S., & Islam, M. M. (2021). Learn2Write: augmented reality and machine learning-based mobile app to learn writing. Computers, 11(1), 4.

Padzil, M. R., Abd Karim, A., & Husnin, H. (2021). Employing DDR to design and develop a flipped classroom and project based learning module to applying design thinking in design and technology. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 12(9).

Pan, X., & Chen, W. (2021). Modeling teacher supports toward self-directed language learning beyond the classroom: technology acceptance and technological self-efficacy as mediators. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Papadakis, S., Alexandraki, F., Zaranis, N. (2022). Greek parents’ app choices and young children’s smart mobile usage at home. In: Auer, M.E., Tsiatsos, T. (eds) New Realities, Mobile Systems and Applications. IMCL 2021. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 411. Springer, Cham.

Pareek, S., Khemani, A., Dhobale, N., Salve, S. (2023). Interactive 3D Marathi language alphabets: AR-based mobile app in context of rural India. In: Chakrabarti, A., Singh, V. (eds) Design in the Era of Industry 4.0. ICORD 2023. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 343. Springer.

Pechenkina, E., Laurence, D., Oates, G., Eldridge, D., & Hunter, D. (2017). Using a gamified mobile app to increase student engagement, retention and academic achievement. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(13), 1-12.

Pedro, L. F. M. G., Barbosa, C. M. M. D. O., & Santos, C. M. D. N. (2018). A critical review of mobile learning integration in formal educational contexts. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1), 1-15.

Piasta, S. B., Logan, J. A., Farley, K. S., Strang, T. M., & Justice, L. M. (2022). Profiles and predictors of children’s growth in alphabet knowledge. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 27(1), 1-26.

Raffas, A. (2022). Teaching reading through ICTs: Computer-based applications and software for reading. Journal of Sports Science, Social and Human Science, 9 (4), 505-519.

Rajendra, I. M., & Sudana, I. M. (2018). Made Rajendra, I., & Made Sudana, I. (2018). The influence of interactive multimedia technology to enhance achievement students on practice skills in mechanical technology. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 953. IOP Publishing.

Rizk, J., & Davies, S. (2021). Can digital technology bridge the classroom engagement gap? Findings from a qualitative study of K-8 classrooms in 10 Ontario school boards. Social Sciences, 10(1), 12.

Rostan, N. N. A., Ismail, H., & Mohamad Jaafar, A. N. (2020). The use of multisensory technique in the teaching open syllables reading skill for preschoolers from a teacher's perspective. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 9(2), 155–165.

Rovithis, E., Floros, A., Moustakas, N., Vogklis, K., & Kotsira, L. (2019). Bridging audio and augmented reality towards a new generation of serious audio-only games. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 17(2), 144-156.

Sage, K., Augustine, H., Shand, H., Bakner, K., & Rayne, S. (2019). Reading from print, computer, and tablet: Equivalent learning in the digital age. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 2477-2502.

Sherine, A., & Olbernt, T. A. (2022). Augmented reality applications for children to learn English alphabets. 2022 International Conference on Green Energy, Computing and Sustainable Technology (GECOST), 476-481.

Soni, N., Aloba, A., Morga, K. S., Wisniewski, P. J., & Anthony, L. (2019). A framework of Touchscreen Interaction Design Recommendations for Children (TIDRC): Characterizing the gap between research evidence and design practice. Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 419-431.

Straková, Z., & Cimermanová, I. (2018). Developing reflective skills of student teachers in the virtual learning environment. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 16(2), 107-121.

Sudin, I. A. A., Rahmatullah, B., Abdullah, M. F. W., Tamrin, K. F., Khairudin, M., & Yahya, S. R. (2022). A systematic literature review study on university students’ exposure to 3D printing as preparation for industry. Journal of ICT in Education, 9(1), 48–60.

Szymkowiak, A., Melović, B., Dabić, M., Jeganathan, K., & Kundi, G. S. (2021). Information technology and Gen Z: The role of teachers, the internet, and technology in the education of young people. Technology in Society, 65, 101565.

Tay, L. Y., Aiyoob, T. B., Chua, T. B. K., Ramachandran, K., & Chia, M. Y. H. (2021). Pre-schoolers’ use of technology and digital media in Singapore: Entertainment indulgence and/or learning engagement? Educational Media International, 58(1), 1-20.

Tomas, M. J. L., Villaros, E. T., & Galman, S. M. A. (2021). The perceived challenges in reading of learners: Basis for school reading programs. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 9(5), 107-122.

Tuli, N., & Mantri, A. (2021). Evaluating usability of mobile-based augmented reality learning environments for early childhood. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 37(9), 815-827.

Vinter, A., Bard, P., Lukowski-Duplessy, H., & Poulin-Charronnat, B. (2023). Learning to name uppercase and lowercase letters in preschoolers and kindergarteners: an investigation of the effects of child- and letter-related factors. Early Education and Development, 1-21.

Wan Ahmad, W. F., & Ahmad Harnaini, A. F. (2022). Designing a mobile application for children: Space science. Journal of Information Technology Management, 14, 124-140.

Wang, F., Gao, C., Kaufman, J., Tong, Y., & Chen, J. (2021). Watching versus touching: The effectiveness of a touchscreen app to teach children to tell time. Computers & Education, 160, 104021.

Wang, H., Wang, L., & Zhu, J. (2022). Moderated mediation model of the impact of autonomous motivation on postgraduate students' creativity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 43, 100997.

Wati, I. F. (2020). Digital game-based learning as a solution to fun learning challenges during the Covid-19 pandemic. 1st International Conference on Information Technology and Education (ICITE 2020), 202-210.

Wei, P., Ahmedt-Aristizabal, D., Gammulle, H., Denman, S., & Armin, M. A. (2023). Vision-based activity recognition in children with autism-related behaviors. Heliyon 9(6), e16763.

Widyastuti, E. (2019). Using the ADDIE model to develop learning material for actuarial mathematics. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1188, 012052. IOP Publishing.

Yasin, A., Liu, L., Li, T., Wang, J., & Zowghi, D. (2018). Design and preliminary evaluation of a cyber Security Requirements Education Game (SREG). Information and Software Technology, 95, 179-200.

Zaini, A., Cheng, K.M., Ong, T.C., Yong, S.C.S.C. (2022). Preschool children’s environmental knowledge and the application of multimedia learning for environmental education. In: He, B.J., Prasad, D., Pignatta, G., Jupesta, J. (eds), Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation. Springer, Cham.

Ziatdinov, R., & Cilliers, J. (2022). Generation Alpha: Understanding the next cohort of university students. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 10(3), 783-789.

Zolkipli, N. Z., Rahmatullah, B., Mohamad Samuri, S., Árva, V., & Sugiyo Pranoto, Y. K. (2023). ‘Leave no one behind’: A systematic literature review on game-based learning courseware for preschool children with learning disabilities. Southeast Asia Early Childhood Journal, 12(1), 79–97.




How to Cite

Che Lah, N. H., Mad Nor, M. S., Roslan, M. H. H., Zulkifli, M. A. A., Tasir, Z., Hashim, S., Alkhayyat, A., & Wan Mustafa, W. A. W. (2023). The Hooray! Hooray! ABC: The evaluation of mobile application for preschool students. Journal of ICT in Education, 10(2), 55–73.