Essentials of Pre-Braille Skills in Braille Learning: A Literature Review


  • Alya Qasdina Ng Ai Lee Department of Special Education, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Kway Eng Hock Department of Special Education, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Hasrul Hosshan Department of Special Education, Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA



Early Braille Literacy, Fluency, Tactile Reading, Pre-Braille Skills, Visual Needs


Pupils with visual needs have a difficult time acquiring tactile reading. For tactile reading, the dexterity of the fingertips influenced the reading pace. The primary objective of this article is to discuss the essentials of pre-braille skills in the early stages of braille literacy and to gain insight into instructional practises in Malaysia's bilingual classrooms in comparison to other nations, including India, Spain, and the United States of America. This paper is intended to provide an enhanced view on pre-braille skills through literature review and revising the conventional instructional practice which emphasises more on rote learning. Henceforth, pre-braille skills are fundamental for consistent and systematic practices during the initial stage of braille literacy. The consequence of this paper will result in pre-braille skills will be prioritised before pupils with visual needs are exposed to more advanced braille literacy. Additionally, the gathered and arranged knowledge may serve as an inspiration for future study.


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How to Cite

Ng Ai Lee, A. Q., Eng Hock, K., & Hosshan, H. (2021). Essentials of Pre-Braille Skills in Braille Learning: A Literature Review. Jurnal Pendidikan Bitara UPSI, 14(2), 76–86.