Jerm program: An Intervention to Separation Anxiety among Kindergarten Pupils in Southern Philippines

  • Jessa Lou Subaldo Gonzales Kalibuhan Elementary School/ Department of Education, Sultan Kudarat, PHILIPPINES
Keywords: Separation Anxiety, Kindergarten, Reduction Program, Kindergarten Pupils, Intervention


Separation anxiety is very common and normal fear of being separated from parents. Anxieties are part of a child’s developmental milestone. When a child goes to school for the first time, mixed emotions are present. It might be exciting but fear is normal too. This study aimed to identify the separation anxiety level of Kindergarten Pupils of Sultan Kudarat, Philippines as well as the symptoms of separation anxiety in terms of cognitive, psychophysiological and behavioural conditions among kindergartens. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design to study the effectiveness of the JERM Program. Respondents were classified as controlled and experimental groups. Data showed that a number of kindergartens have separation anxiety in both the experimental and controlled group in pre assessment. After the pre survey, the researcher employed the JERM program in the experimental group meanwhile the controlled group did not have any intervention to assess the effectiveness of the program employed. After the intervention both groups underwent a post survey. The researcher identified the improvement of the experimental group compared to the controlled group. The result has proven that the JERM program among kindergarten pupils has a potential in improving their cognitive, psychophysiological and behavioural aspects however the success of the program depends on how the parents and teachers are trained to employ it.


Download data is not yet available.


Alampay, J. (2017, July 29). Parent Sci Pract. Retrieved September 1, 2021, from

Annie. (2019, January 17). Aimtalk-blog. Retrieved August 24, 2021, from

Battaglia, M., Touchette, É., Garon‐Carrier, G., Dionne, G., Côté, S.M., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, .E., & Boivin, M. (2016). Distinct trajectories of separation anxiety in the preschool years: Persistence at school entry and early‐life associated factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(1), 39-46. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12424.

Bilich, K. (2018, July 22). ParentsNetwork Meredith Corporation. Retrieved May 18, 2019, from https://www.parents/toddlers-preschoolers/starting-preschool/separation-anxiety/overcoming-separation-anxiety/

Brennan, D. (2018, November 4). WebMD.LLC. Retrieved May 17, 2019, from WebMD Medical Reference: http://www.parenting-separation-anxiety-in-children/

Cruz, L. R. (2017, April 18). Family Influences. Retrieved August 28, 2021, from www.files.ethz:

DOH. (2018). Mental Health Program. Department of Health. Manila, Philippines: Sun Star.

DSM. (2013, February 7). Diagnostic Statistical Manual Fifth Edition. Retrieved August 23, 2021, from DSM Psychiatry:

Gamboa, H. (2019). (ASIAN JOURNAL MEDIA CENTER) Retrieved August 23, 2021, from

Goyola, J. E. (2019, January 14). Retrieved August 29, 2021, from

Grace T. Cruz, Elma P. Laguna, Corazon M. Raymundo. (April, 18 2017). Family Influences. Retrieved August 28, 2021, from www.files.ethz:

Hurley, K. (2018, September 26). Vertical Health Websites. Retrieved May 4, 2019, from Generalized Anxiety Disorder( GAD)>Helping Kids with Anxiety:Strategies to Help Anxious Children> Separation Anxiety in Children: How to Help your Child with Separation Anxiety:

Koenig, R. (2019, April 18). Retrieved April 18, 2019, from

Lavigne, J.V., LeBailly, S.A., Hopkins, J., Gouze, K.R., & Bins, H.J. (2009). The prevalence of ADHD, ODD, depression and anxiety in a community sample of 4-year-olds. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 315-328. doi: 10.1080/15374410902851382.

Levin, V. (2019, May 2). Retrieved May 2, 2019, from Separation Anxiety in Preschool:

Martinez, C. M. (2020, March 1). Filipino help-seeking for mental health problems and associated barriers and facilitators: A systematic Review. Retrieved September 4, 2021, from www.soc.psychiatry.psychiatric: https://soc.psychiatry/psychiatric/55ss/olp/

Schwartz,A.(2018, October 28). Separation Anxiety : a Normal Occurrence for Small Children. Retrieved October28, 2018,from Separation Anxiety.

Swanson, W. S. (2015, November 21). Mama Doc Medicine: Finding Calm and Confidence in Parenting, Child Health and Work-Life Balance. Retrieved May 17, 2019, from

WHO. (2017). Mental Health of World Health Organization. Philippines: Inquirer.Xavier Méndez ,José P. Espada,Mireia Orgilés,Luis M. Llavona,José M. García-Fernández Published: July 29, 2014

How to Cite
Gonzales, J. L. S. (2021). Jerm program: An Intervention to Separation Anxiety among Kindergarten Pupils in Southern Philippines. Jurnal Pendidikan Bitara UPSI, 14, 1-8.