EKSTERNALITI MODAL MANUSIA RAKAN SEKERJA DAN UPAH INDIVIDU: BUKTI EMPIRIK DI SEKTOR PERKHIDMATAN DI MALAYSIA

Co-worker’s Human Capital and Individual Wage Externality: Empirical Evidence in Malaysia Service Sector

  • Noor Fazlin Mohamed Noor Fakulti Pengurusan dan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak
  • Zainizam Zakariya Fakulti Pengurusan dan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak
  • Norimah bt. Rambeli Ramli Fakulti Pengurusan dan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak
  • Azila Abdul Razak Fakulti Pengurusan dan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak
Keywords: Influence effect, externality, human capital,, wage,, co-worker, Malaysia

Abstract

Artikel ini bertujuan meneroka sejauh mana limpahan modal manusia rakan sekerja ke atas upah pekerja wujud di sektor perkhidmatan di Malaysia. Tiga indikator modal manusia rakan sekerja digunakan iaitu pendidikan, pengalaman kerja dan latihan. Berpandukan data Tinjauan Iklim Pelaburan dan Produktiviti (PICS) tahun 2007, indikator modal manusia rakan sekerja diukur menggunakan maklumat survey pekerja dan majikan. Model Kesan Rawak (KR) digunakan dalam menganggar pengaruh ketiga-tiga faktor tersebut ke atas upah individu. Hasil kajian menunjukkan pendidikan rakan sekerja sahaja yang signifikan dan positif mempengaruhi upah individu manakala pengalaman kerja dan latihan rakan sekerja tiada pengaruh signifikan. Peningkatan tambahan satu tahun dalam persekolahan rakan sekerja dapat meningkatkan upah individu antara 2.8 hingga 4.7 peratus setahun dan kadar pulangan ini adalah tinggi bagi perempuan (4.7 peratus) berbanding lelaki (3.5 peratus). Selain itu, jurang perbezaan tahun persekolahan antara responden dan tempat kerja (min dispersi) juga memberi kesan positif kepada upah individu. Peningkatan satu mata sisihan piawai min dispersi akan meningkatkan upah individu antara 2 hingga 3.7 peratus. Selain daripada modal manusia individu itu sendiri, pengaruh positif pendidikan rakan sekerja ini ke atas upah individu boleh diterjemahkan sebagai kewujudan limpahan atau eksternaliti positif di tempat kerja yang mampu meningkatkan produktiviti individu pekerja lain di dalam organisasi yang sama.

 

This article aims to explore the extent of influence the co-worker’s human capital has on employee wage in Malaysia service sector. Three co-worker’s human capital indicators were used which are education, work experience and training. Based on Productivity Investment Climate Survey (PICS) 2007 data, co-worker’s human capital indicator was measured via employees and employers’ survey information. Random Effect (RE) model is used in estimating the influence of the three factors on individual wage. The outcome shows that only co-worker’s education is significant and positive in influencing individual wage whereas co-worker’s work experience and training has no significant influence. A year increasement in co-worker’s school year will be able to increase individual wage from 2.8 up to 4.7 percent per year and this income rate is higher for women (4.7 percent) compared to men (3.5 percent). In addition, respondents’ school year gap with the workplace (dispersion min) also gives a positive effect for the individual wage. A one-point increase in dispersion min standard devation will increase individual wage between 2 to 3.7 percent. Aside from the individual human capital, this positive coworker’s education influence on individual wage can be translated as an existence of influence or positive externality at the workplace that is able to increase the productivity of other individual workers within the same organisation.

 

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Published
2016-10-06
How to Cite
Mohamed Noor, N. F., Zakariya, Z., Ramli, N. bt. R., & Abdul Razak, A. (2016). EKSTERNALITI MODAL MANUSIA RAKAN SEKERJA DAN UPAH INDIVIDU: BUKTI EMPIRIK DI SEKTOR PERKHIDMATAN DI MALAYSIA. Management Research Journal, 5, 51-69. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/MRJ/article/view/1530