Stress Management: Which is a Better Method? A Comparative Analysis Between the Periods of Before-During Covid-19 Pandemic


  • Norasibah Abdul Jalil Fakulti Pengurusan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Norimah Rambeli@Ramli Fakulti Pengurusan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Awadh Ahmed Mohamed Gamal Fakulti Pengurusan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Asmawi Hashim Fakulti Pengurusan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Emilda Hashim Fakulti Pengurusan Ekonomi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA



Stress, Covid19, University students, Face to Face, Online, Comparative study


This study aims to identify which teaching and learning (TnL) method is more helpful to university students in stress management. The TnL methods compared are; the physical Face-to-Face (F2F) method which is practiced at campus during the period before Covid-19 hit the country; and the Online method, which is practiced at home during the Covid-19 period. This study uses a questionnaire as the research instrument and the input is documented in the Likert scale 5-point Likert scale. The respondents are the Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) students, who experienced both TnL methods considered in this study. The data were analyzed by using the descriptive statistical method; and the paired sample t-test inferential analysis. The findings provide an indication, the majority of the respondents admitted that they had experienced stress during both periods, but a higher mean (M=3.08) is observed during the Covid-19 period compared to before the Covid-19 period (M=2.70). The results for the stress level analysis by TnL methods recorded a moderate stress level (M=2.77) for the Face-to-Face method and a High-stress level (M=3.08) for the Online method. The paired sample t-test recorded a significant result.  This provides an indication there is a significant change in stress levels experienced by the students when the teaching and learning method changed from Face-to-Face, to Online. In conclusion, changes in teaching and learning methods significantly influenced the students’ stress levels and with regards to that, from the mental health perspective, the F2F method is the better method compared to the Online method because the level of stress experienced by the students is low.


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How to Cite

Abdul Jalil, N., Rambeli@Ramli, N., Mohamed Gamal, A. A., Hashim, A., & Hashim, E. (2023). Stress Management: Which is a Better Method? A Comparative Analysis Between the Periods of Before-During Covid-19 Pandemic . Management Research Journal, 12(1), 38–48.




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