DIETARY PATTERNS, INVOLVEMENT IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) AND PHYSICAL SELF-CONCEPT AMONG OBESE CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY AREA
Keywords:obesity, physical self concept, dietary pattern, physical activity, physical and health education
This study aims to identify dietary patterns, involvement in physical activity, and the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and the physical self-concept among obese students (13 years old) in Klang Valley area. A total of 350 students (69% overweight, 31% obese) participated in this study. Based on the pattern of food intake questionnaire, the study shows that nasi lemak or nasi berlauk is the main menu to be taken during breakfast, morning tea time and lunchtime. For dinner, the preferred food is fast food. While the main food that is the most frequently purchased from the school canteen is nasi lemak. In terms of participation in physical activity, it is found that subjects perform heavy work 3 days (M = 2.74, SD = 1.53) a week with an average of 1 hour 35 min (M = 1:35, SD = 1.26) for each of the heavy work activity. Next, the average day of moderate activity is 4 days (M = 4:40, SD = 1.49), with an average period of 1 hour for each activity. In addition, the average number of days of walking (more than 20 minutes) is 1 day (M = 1:09, SD = 1.01) a week. However, the average time is 19 minutes (M = 0.9, SD = 0.2) for each walking activity. Meanwhile, the average hours for the subject seated in a day is 12 hours (M = 12.29, SD = 2.53). In addition, the relationship between BMI scores and physical self-concept shows that there is a significant positive relationship between self-concept of body fat content and BMI scores (r = 0.181, p = 0.001, p <0.05). However, there is a significant negative relationship between general physical self-concept and BMI scores (r = -0.179, p = 0.001, p = 0.05). Physical self-concept of physical health is the highest score for overweight subjects (M = 5:06, SD = 0.58) and obese subjects (M = 5:08, SD = 0:54), while the general self-esteem was the lowest score of the physical self concept for overweight subjects (M = 2.82, SD = 1:02) and obese (M = 2.63, SD = 0.89). This study suggests that Physical and Health Education should be carried out correctly in school in order to prevent obesity and to promote a better healthy life style among students. Meanwhile, SEGAK (National Physical Fitness Standard) test can be used as an indicator for determining obesity intervention program for obese students.