Identifying Flood Hazard Potentials Based on Geographical Characteristics in the Jaffna District, Sri Lanka
Identifikasi Potensi Bencana Banjir Berdasarkan Ciri-ciri Geografi di Daerah Jaffna, Sri Lanka
Keywords:Geographical characteristics, flood hazard, jaffna district, seasonal rainfall, vulnerable region
Floods is a major hazard causing property damage, business and tourism loss, crop damage and negative effects on people in the Jaffna District of Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to identify the geographical characteristics that contribute to flood hazard potentials in the study area. Primary data was collected using focus group discussion and field visits, with data from government departments. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistical method, and the results were mapped using ARC GIS 11.2 software. Rainfall variability, especially intensity, directly affects flood impacts. The geographical terrain of a place, whether low-lying, flat or in the form of depression has high flood potentials. The study revealed that 26% of the low elevation places of the district have experienced severe flooding during the last sixty years. Other geographical characteristics such as soil types, collapsed natural and human-made drainage systems, unplanned road development, railway track construction, and siltation of ponds are also found to contribute to the flood hazards. After identifying the geographical characteristics and flood potentials, the flood-prone areas can be mapped and appropriate flood-alleviation measures put into place.
Balachandran, S. (2000). Applied Climatology (First Edition). Department of Geography, University of Jaffna, Jaffna, Sri Lanka, 06-24.
Balsundarampillai, P. (2010). Development Strategies of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Proceeding of the Northern Provincial Council, 15-28.
Brammer, H. T. (2012). The Physical Geography of Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: University Press, 23-29.
Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. (2016). The human cost of weather-related disasters 1995-2015. United Nations for Disease and Risk Reduction (UNISDR) (Retrived from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/COP21_WeatherDisastersReport_2015_FINAL.pdf Accessed 7/2/2020).
Chaguta, T. (2009). Towards Improved Public Awareness for Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication Perspective. Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 2, 113-126.
Chan, N. W. (2011). Addressing Flood Hazards Via Environmental Humanities in Malaysia, Malaysian Journal of Environmental Management,12 (2), 11-22.
Chan, N. W. (1997). Increasing flood risk in Malaysia: Causes and Solution. Disaster Prevention and Management, 6 (8), 72-86.
Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse. How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking Press.
National Disaster Management Center of Sri Lanka. Disaster Profiles of Sri Lanka Colombo, 10-19.
Thampiyapillai, G. (1974). Tropical Cyclones in Ceylon. Ceylon Geographer, 3 (1), 1-28.
Rahman, H. (2015). Community Based Disaster Information Management System: Perspective Bangladesh. Regional Workshop on Best Practices in Disaster Mitigation, 120-134.
Howard, J. L. (2012). Climatic Hazards Impacts on the Agriculture of the Solaunta, Brazil. International Journal of Social Science, 2 (5), 68-76.
Jeyawardena, C. P. G. (2012). Challenges of the plantation sector of the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Journal of Agricultural Research, 5 (1), 34-45.
Komatsu,W. L. (2011). International Response on disaster mitigation measures in developing countries. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 4 (4), 45-51.
Kumar, K. (1987). Conducting group interviews in developing countries. A.I.D. Program Design and Evaluation Methodology Report No. 8. Washington, DC: U.S. Agency for International Development, 42-58.
Lumader, G. (2005). Impacts of flood in agriculture in the kumawongtor region of Bangladesh. Journal of Agricultural Science, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 23-32.
Ministry of Disaster Management (2014). Sri Lanka Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme 2014-2019. Colombo. (Available at http://www.disastermin.gov.lk/web/images/pdf/slcdmp%20english.pdf Accessed 8/2/2020).
Murphy, A. B. (2014). Geography's crosscutting themes: Golden anniversary reflections on the four traditions of geography. Journal of Geography, 113 (5), 181–188.
Nagamuthu, P., & Rajendram, K. (2015). Occurrences of Flood hazards in the Northern Region of Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian studies, 3 (3), 363-376.
Publicity Division, Ministry of information and the Arts (1994). Singapore 1994. Singapore.
District Secretariat of Jaffna (2019). Reports of the District Disaster Management Unit., Sri Lanka, 21-38.
Palliyaguru, R., Amartunga, D., & Haigh, H. (2010). Economic Development Perspectives of Post Disaster Infrastructure Reconstruction in Sri Lanka. Journal of Environmental Science, 1033-1050.
Samarasinghe, S. M. J. S., Nandlal, H. K., Weliyawitiya, D. P., Fowze, J. S. M., Hazarika, M. K., & Samarakoon, L. (2010). Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for flood Risk Analysis: A Case Study at Kalu Ganga River, Sri Lanka. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science.Vol. XXXVIII, part 8, Japan,110-115.
Schumann, G. J. P., Bates, P .D., Apel, H., & Aronica, G. T. (2018). The challenges of global flood hazard mapping and prediction, Eos, 99, Wiley Online. Published on 09 July 2018. Retrived from https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EO101241.
Sherhereyar, B. S. (2005). Tornadoes impacts in the Coastal regions of Mami, of USA. International Journal of Natural Disasters, 4 (2), 112-123.
Wagenaar, D. J., Dahm, R. J., Diermanse, F. L. M., Dias, W. P. S., Dissayanake, D. M. S. S., Vajja, H. P., Gehrels, J. C., & Bouwer, L. M. (2019). Evaluating adaptation measures for reducing flood risk: A case study in the city of Colombo, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 37, 101-162.
Weerakone. K, (2007). Climate change impacts on agriculture in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. National Conference, Colombo, 31-39.
Weerasooriya, G. W. K. L. (2009). Economic Development problems of Sri Lanka in the postwar context. International Journal of Economic Development, UK, 90-98.
Wolksoun,T.N. (2011). Importance of the natural disasters mitigation measures in the development of the peritingan region of Assam, India. International Journal of economic development, 4 (8), India, 41-56.
World Meteorological Organization. (2009). Integrated Flood Management: Concept Paper, Geneva, Switzerland.