Exploring the Link Between the Psychological Needs and the Elements of Game Design for Educational Games.
This paper explores the link between play, an evolutionary and biological trait found in human behaviour and the fundamental human psychological needs; and its complex relationship with the game design principles in order to answer the following - why do people play games and what motivates them to do so? Answering these two questions would enable educational game designers to better understand game design principles for developing engaging educational games. This research will delve into the psychological aspects of play and attempt to link those aspects to game design elements. Studying Prensky’s six elements of successful games, the Octalysis gamification framework and the fundamental psychological needs, the paper will then present the findings of an exploratory and confirmatory survey from practicing game designers all around South-East Asia. The results of these findings give an overall positive and current result that provides a useful point of reference in order to create a game design model that would offer a set of guiding principles for educational game designers to create engaging gameplay.
Bernhaupt, R. (Ed.). (2010). Evaluating user experience in games: Concepts and methods. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84882-963-3
Chorost, M. (2011). How I kicked my addiction to the iPhone game Angry Birds. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/world-wide-mind/201101/how-i-kicked-my-addiction-the-iphone-game-angry-birds.
Chua, Y. P. (2020). Mastering research methods. 3rd Ed. Mcgraw-Hill Education.
Crawford, C. (1984). The art of computer game design. Retrieved from https://www.digitpress.com/library/books/book_art_of_computer_game_design.pdf.
de Mézerville López, C. M. (2019). Adolescence and creativity: cognitions and affect involved in positive youth development.
Fullerton, T. (2014). Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 3rd Ed. CRC press.
Heick, T. (2017) Why People Play Video Games [Internet]. TeachThought. Retrieved 29 January 2020 from: https://www.teachthought.com/learning/why-people-play-video-games.
Jones, Christopher, Binhui Shao, and Milton Keynes. "The Net Generation and Digital Natives." A Literature Review Commissioned by the Higher Education Academy. Open University Review in United Kingdom 1 (2011): 56.
Judd, T. (2018). The rise and fall (?) of the digital natives. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(5).
Lovell, S. N. C. (2017). The Pyramid of Game Design. CRC Press.
Ng, Y., Khong, C. W., & Nathan, R. J. (2018). Evaluating affective user-centered design of video games using qualitative methods. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2018.
Omori, M. T., & Felinto, A. S. (2012). Analysis of motivational elements of social games: a puzzle match 3-games study case. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2012.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the horizon, 9(5), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424816
Prensky, M. (2001). Fun, play and games: What makes games engaging. Digital game-based learning, 5(1), 5-31.
Przybylski, A. K., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). A motivational model of video game engagement. Review of general psychology, 14(2), 154-166.
Sanchez-Gordón, M. L., Colomo-Palacios, R., & Herranz, E. (2016). Gamification and human factors in quality management systems: mapping from octalysis framework to ISO 10018. European Conference on Software Process Improvement (pp. 234-241).
Schell, J. (2019). The Art of Game Design: A book of lenses. AK Peters/CRC Press.
Squire, K. (2003). Video games in education. In International journal of intelligent simulations and gaming. Retrived from: https://website.education.wisc.edu/kdsquire/tenure-files/39-squire-IJIS.pdf.
Stout, M. (2018). Gamasutra - Evaluating Game Mechanics For Depth. Retrieved from: https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/134273/evaluating_game_mechanics_for_depth.php?print=1.
Super Data (2019). 2019 Year in Review: Digital Games and Interactive Media.
Taipale, S. (2016). Synchronicity matters: defining the characteristics of digital generations. Information, Communication & Society, 19(1), 80-94.
Tan, C. I. (2019). Linking the Elements of Learning, Assessment, and Play Experience in a Validation Framework. In Design, Motivation, and Frameworks in Game-Based Learning (pp. 93-122). IGI Global.
Tan, W. H. (2010). Game-based learning in formal educational contexts: How subject matter experts and game experts could collaborate to design and develop games (Doctoral dissertation, University of Warwick).
Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Soenens, B. (2020). Basic psychological need theory: Advancements, critical themes, and future directions.
Wei, H., Bizzocchi, J., & Calvert, T. (2010). Time and space in digital game storytelling. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2010.
Weitze, C. L. (2014). Developing goals and objectives for gameplay and learning. In Learning, education and games: Volume one: Curricular and design considerations (pp. 225-249). Carnegie Mellon University ETC Press.
Wiemeyer, J., Nacke, L., & Moser, C. (2016). Player experience. In Serious Games (pp. 243-271). Springer, Cham.
Yogman, M., Garner, A., Hutchinson, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. (2018). The power of play: A pediatric role in enhancing development in young children. Pediatrics, 142(3).
Zosh, J. N., Hopkins, E. J., Jensen, H., Liu, C., Neale, D., Hirsh-Pasek, K., ... & Whitebread, D. (2017). Learning through play: a review of the evidence. LEGO Fonden.
Copyright (c) 2020 UPSI Press, Malaysia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.