Kajian sistematik: Pendekatan pengajaran dan impak khazanah pengetahuan dalam pembelajaran sains

Systematic research: Approaches to teaching and the impact of treasuring knowledge in science learning

  • Ghazali Sabudin Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Lilia Halim Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: Sains, Pembelajaran Relevan Budaya, Pembelajaran Responsif Budaya, Kongruen Budaya, Khazanah Pengetahuan

Abstract

Jurang pencapaian pelajar dalam pendidikan antara pelajar di bandar dan luar bandar meyakinkan bahawa perlunya usaha yang berterusan bagi mencapai ekuiti dalam pendidikan di Malaysia. Pendidikan Sains sering dikatakan tidak relevan dengan kehidupan pelajar khususnya pelajar luar bandar membuatkan pelajar berasa tidak terikat, kurang berminat serta kurang menyerlah dalam pencapaian Sains. Masih kurang kajian mengenai khazanah pengetahuan pelajar dalam pembelajaran Sains di Malaysia walaupun ia mampu untuk menghubungkan pengalaman, pengetahuan, dan kemahiran pelajar di luar sekolah dengan konteks Sains sekolah. Kajian sistematik ini dijalankan bagi menganalisis secara kritikal dan sintesis trend terkini, pendekatan pengajaran dan impak kajian yang menggunakan khazanah pengetahuan pelajar dalam pembelajaran Sains. Tiga pangkalan data iaitu SCOPUS, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) dan SCIENCE DIRECT digunakan untuk mencari artikel dari tahun 2010-2019. Sebanyak 307 artikel yang menggunakan kata kunci khazanah pengetahuan dan Sains telah dijumpai namun hanya 17 sahaja artikel yang dianalisis selepas melepasi proses saringan. Dapatan analisis menunjukkan bahawa kajian khazanah pengetahuan dalam pembelajaran Sains adalah antara kajian yang terbanyak pada tahun terkini dengan berfokus pada pelajar di bandar. Sampel kajian iaitu pelajar dan guru serta tahap pendidikan iaitu rendah dan menengah adalah seimbang. Selain itu, temu bual merupakan instrumen kajian yang sering digunakan diikuti pemerhatian dalam kelas, analisis nota lapangan, analisis rancangan pengajaran dan penilaian pelajar. Penggunaan wacana merupakan pendekatan yang paling kerap digunakan dalam mendapatkan khazanah pengetahuan pelajar, diikuti penghasilan artifak, pendekatan inkuiri dan penggunaan teknologi. Impak penggunaan khazanah pengetahuan termasuklah pelajar lebih terikat, berminat, aktif, berasa relevan dengan kehidupan, meningkatkan pencapaian, dan dapat memahami konsep Sains.  Implikasi kajian adalah 1) mengimplementasikan khazanah pengetahuan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran Sains terutama pada pelajar luar bandar dan 2) keperluan latihan perguruan membentuk pengetahuan, kemahiran dan sikap guru dalam ilmu dan amalan pengintegerasaian khazanah pengetahuan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran sains.

 

The gap of student achievement in education between urban and rural student suggests that continuous effort is required to achieve equity in Malaysian Education. Science education is often said as not relevant with students’ lives especially rural students, resulting students felt not engaged, less interested, and does not performed in Science. There is little research about students’ funds of knowledge (FOK) in Science learning in Malaysia even though FOK is able to connect students experience, knowledge, and skills out of school with school science learning. This systematic review is done to analyse critically and synthesis trends, instructional approach and impact of research that used funds of knowledge in Science learning. Three databases were used which are SCOPUS, Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and SCIENCE DIRECT to determine articles from 2010-2019. The search resulted 307 articles using funds of knowledge and science as the keywords but only 17 articles were analysed after the screening process. The analysis showed that research about funds of knowledge in Science learning has gained in number but mostly focused on urban students. Studies revolved around students and teachers, also are focussed at primary and secondary schools. In addition, interview is the common research instrument used in the research followed by observation, field note analysis, and lesson plan analysis including students’ assessment. Discourse analysis was the most common approach used to obtain student funds of knowledge followed by production of artefact, inquiry approach and use of technology. The impacts of using student’s funds of knowledge is that students are more engaged, interested, active, found relevancy with life, improve achievement, and able to understand the science concept. Implications of the study are  1) to implement FOK in the teaching and learning of science especially for rural students, and 2)  the need for teacher education to develop teachers’ knowledge, skills and attitudes in the content and practice integrating FOK in the teaching and learning or science.

 Keywords: science, culturally relevant learning, culturally responsive learning, culturally congruent, funds of knowledge

References

Andree, M., & Lager-Nyquist, L. (2012). ‘What do you know about fat?’ Drawing on Diverse Funds of Knowledge in Inquiry Based Science Education. Nordic Studies in Science Education, 8(2), 178.
https://doi.org/10.5617/nordina.526

Ahmad Nurulazam & Rohandi (2015). Incorporating Students’ Funds of Knowledge to Develop Students’ Interest Towards Learning Science.

Avery, L. M. (2013). Rural science education: Valuing local knowledge. Theory into Practice, 52, 28–35.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07351690.2013.743769.

Avery, L. M., & Kassam, K. (2011). Phronesis: Children’s local rural knowledge of science and engineering. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26, 1–18.

Barton, A. C., & Yang, K. (2000). The Culture of Power and Science Education: Learning from Miguel. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(8), 871-889.

Barton, A. C., & Tan, E. (2009). Funds of knowledge and discourses and hybrid space. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46, 50–73.
https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20269.

Borgerding, L. A. (2016). High school biology evolution learning experiences in a rural context: a case of and for cultural border crossing. Cultural Studies of Science Education.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11422-016-9758-0

Borgerding, L. A. (2017). High school biology evolution learning experiences in a rural context: a case of and for cultural border crossing. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 12(1), 53–79.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11422-016-9758-0

Brickhouse, N. W., Lowery, P., & Schultz, K. (2000). What kind of a girl does science? The construction of school science identities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37 (421- 458).

Brown, J. C., & Crippen, K. J. (2016). The Knowledge and Practices of High School Science Teachers in Pursuit of Cultural Responsiveness.
https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21250

Buxton, C. A., Salinas, A., Mahotiere, M., Lee, O., & Secada, W. G. (2013). Leveraging cultural resources through teacher pedagogical reasoning: Elementary grade teachers analyze second language learners’ science problem solving. Teaching and Teacher Education, 32, 31–42.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.01.003

Cowie, B., Jones, A., & Otrel-Cass, K. (2011). Re-engaging students in science: Issues of assessment, funds of knowledge and sites for learning. International Journal of Science Education, 9, 347–366.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-010-9229-0

Esteban-Guitart, M., Lalueza, J. L., Zhang-Yu, C., & Llopart, M. (2019). Sustaining Students’ Cultures and Identities. A Qualitative Study Based on the Funds of Knowledge and Identity Approaches. Sustainability.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123400

Fatin aliah phang, Mohd salleh abu, Mohammad bilal ali, Salmiza salleh (2014) Faktor penyumbang kepada kemerosotan penyertaan pelajar aliran sains: satu analisis sorotan tesis. Sains Humanika 2:4 (2014) 63-71

Fischer, H. E., & Horstendahl, M. (1997). Motivation and Learning Physics. Research and Science Education, 27(3), 411-424.

Fusco, D. (2001). Creating relevant science through urban planning and gardening. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(8), 860-877.

Genzuk, M. (1999). Tapping Into Community Funds of Knowledge. In Effective Strategies for English Language Acquisition: Curriculum Guide for Professional Development of Teachers. Los Angeles: LAAMP/ARCO

Gondwe, M., & Longnecker, N. (2015). Objects as Stimuli for Exploring Young People’ s Views about Cultural and Scientific Knowledge. 40(5), 766–792.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243915577452

Gonsalves, A. J. (n.d.). “Science isn’ t just what we learn in school”: Interaction Rituals That Value Youth Voice in Out-of- School-Time Science Résumé. 1(2014).

Gonzalez, N., & Moll, L. C. (2002). Cruzando el Puente: Building bridges to funds of knowledge. Educational Policy, 16, 623–641.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904802016004009

Hogg, L. (2011). Funds of knowledge: An investigation of coherence within the literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(3), 666–677.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.11.005

Irish, T. (2017). Connecting Classroom Science with Everyday Life : Teachers ’ Attempts and Students ’ Insights. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-017-9836-0

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2013). Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2019). Pengumuman analisis keputusan Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) 2018.

Kermish-allen, R. (2018). The utility of citizen science projects in K-5 schools: measures of community engagement and student impacts. Cultural Studies of Science Education.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11422-017-9830-4

Krapp, A. (2002). Structural and dynamic constructs of interest development: theoretical considerations from an ontogenetic perspective. Learning and Instruction, 12(4), 383-409

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. NewYork: Cambridge University Press.

Llopart, M., & Esteban-Guitart, M. (2017). Strategies and resources for contextualising the curriculum based on the funds of knowledge approach: a literature review. Australian Educational Researcher, 44(3), 255–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-017-0237-8

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., … Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions : Explanation and Elaboration. 6(7).
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100

Llopart, M., & Esteban-Guitart, M. (2018). Funds of knowledge in 21st century societies: inclusive educational practices for under-represented students. A literature review. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 50(2), 145–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2016.1247913

McCarty,T.L., Lynch, R.H.,Wallace, S.,&Benally,A. (1991). Classroom inquiry and Navajo learning styles: A call for reassessment. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 22, 42–59.

Maulucci, S. R., Brown, B. A., Grey, S. T., & Sullivan, S. (2014). Urban Middle School Students’ Reflections on Authentic Science Inquiry. 51(9), 1119–1149.
https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21167

Martínez-álvarez, P., Sáez, N., & Ghiso, M. P. (2018). Mediating hybrid spaces in the bilingual science class by learning to cultivate children ’ s metaphors. Linguistics and Education, 47, 68–83.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2018.08.003

McLaughlin, D. S., & Barton, A. C. (2013). Preservice teachers’ uptake and understanding of funds of knowledge in elementary science. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 24, 13–36.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-012-9284-1

Mills, K., Bonsignore, E., Clegg, T., Ahn, J., Yip, J., Pauw, D., … Pitt, C. (2018). Designing to illuminate children’s scientific funds of knowledge through social media sharing. IDC 2018 - Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children.
https://doi.org/10.1145/3202185.3202737

Mills, K., Bonsignore, E., Clegg, T., Ahn, J., Yip, J., Pauw, D., … Pitt, C. (2019). Connecting children’s scientific funds of knowledge shared on social media to science concepts. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 21, 54–64.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2019.04.003

Moje, E. B., Ciechanowski, K. M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, 38–70.
https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.1.4

Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31, 132–141.
https://doi.org/10. 1080/00405849209543534

Oliver, J. S., & Simpson, R. D. (1988). Influences of attitude toward science, achievement, motivation, and science self concept on achievement in science: a longitudinal study. Science Education, 72(2), 143-155

Resnick, L. B. (1987). Learning in school and out. Educational Researcher, 16(9), 13–20.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1175725

Ryu, M., Tuvilla, M. R. S., Wright, C. E., Ryu, M., Tuvilla, M. R. S., & Wright, C. E. (2019). Resettled Burmese Refugee Youths ’ Identity Work in an Afterschool STEM Learning Setting Resettled Burmese Refugee Youths ’ Identity Work in an Afterschool STEM Learning Setting. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 33(1), 84–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2018.1531454

Siegel, M. A., & Ranney, M. A. (2003). Developing the Changes in Attitude about the Relevance of Science (CARS) Questionnaire and Assessing Two High School Science Classes. Journal Of Research In Science Teaching, 40(8), 757-775

Sierra-correa, P. C., Ricardo, J., & Kintz, C. (2015). Ecosystem-based adaptation for improving coastal planning for sea-level rise: A systematic review for mangrove coasts. Marine Policy, 51, 385–393.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.09.013

Simpson, R., & Oliver, J. (1990). A summary of major influences on attitude toward and achievement in science among adolescent students. Science Education, 74, 1-18.

Stevens, S. (2016). Motivating Young Native American Students to Pursue STEM Learning Through a Culturally Relevant Science Program. Journal of Science Education and Technology.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9629-1

Tan, E., & Barton, A. C. (2010). Transforming science learning and student participation in sixth grade science: A case study of a low-income, urban, racial minority classroom. Equity & Excellence in Education, 43, 38–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680903472367

Tolbert, S., Knox, C., & Salinas, I. (2019). Framing, Adapting, and Applying: Learning to Contextualize Science Activity in Multilingual Science Classrooms.

Trumper, R. (2006). Factors Affecting Junior High School Students’ Interest in Physics. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(1), 47-58.

Upadhyay, B. R. (2006). Using Students‟ Lived Experiences in an Urban Science Classroom: An Elementary School Teacher‟s Thinking. Science Education 90, 94 - 110.

Velez-Ibanez, C. G., & Greenberg, J. B. (1992). Formation and transformation of funds of knowledge among U.S.-Mexican households. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 23, 313–335.
https://doi.org/10.1525/ aeq.1992.23.4.05x1582v

Verdin, D., Godwin, A., & Capobianco, B. (2016). Systematic review of the funds of knowledge framework in STEM education. ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2016-June.

Williams, P. J., & Otrel-cass, K. (2016). Teacher and student reflections on ICT-rich science inquiry. 5143(November).
https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2016.1248928

Zacharia, Z., & Barton, A. C. (2004). Urban Middle-School Students’ Attitudes Toward a Defined Science. Science Education, 88(2). 197-222.
Published
2020-04-30
How to Cite
Sabudin, G., & Halim, L. (2020). Kajian sistematik: Pendekatan pengajaran dan impak khazanah pengetahuan dalam pembelajaran sains. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 10(1), 21-38. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/JPSMM/article/view/3163