A Conceptual framework of teacher and student strategies in the use of science textbooks through a systematic literature review


  • Anis Zulaikha Ridzuwan Pusat Kajian Pembudayaan STEM, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Lilia Halim Pusat Kajian Pembudayaan STEM, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Wan Muna Ruzanna Wan Mohammad Pusat Kajian Kepelbagaian Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia




science textbooks, teacher, students, framework, systematic literature review


Science education is a critical aspect in driving the progress of a country and Science textbooks play a role in its widespread use throughout the world. This systematic literature review aims to explore the strategies of teachers and students in the use of science textbooks. Therefore, this survey has analyzed 220 journal articles through four steps based on PRISMA, namely, identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion. A total of 35 journal articles selected between 2014 and 2023 were obtained from Scopus, Web of Science (WoS), and ERIC databases. To identify themes from the data obtained, a thematic analysis was carried out. The results of the review of journal articles show several strategies and functions of textbooks in Science education. For teachers, textbooks are used as teaching guides, resources for teaching preparation, reading materials and training resources for students. Teachers also use other resources such as the Internet and YouTube as teaching support materials to the textbook content to address errors identified in textbook  and for additional information. Meanwhile, students use school textbooks by reading, referencing diagrams, practice questions, and search for analogies. At the same time, students use various textbook as additional support materials and refer to online learning resources. A conceptual framework demonstrating the textbook usage strategies by teachers and students was established. A possible future research is to explore innovative teaching methods that use technology such as interactive digital sites that can support teaching and learning with school science textbooks.


Download data is not yet available.


Aivelo, T., & Uitto, A. (2021). Factors explaining students’ attitudes towards learning genetics and belief in genetic determinism. International Journal of Science Education, 43(9), 1408-1425. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2021.1917789

Albadi, N. M., Harkins, J., & O’Toole, J. M. (2019). Recent reforms in saudi secondary science education: teacher and student perceptions of Grade 10 Physics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 17(4), 701–721. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-018-9881-3

Al-Rawahi, N. M., & Al-Balushi, S. M. (2015). The effect of reflective science journal writing on students' self-regulated learning strategies. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(3), 367-379. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1069260

An, B. S., & Chua, K. H. (2023). A comparative analysis of lower secondary chemistry textbook components: A study involving the chinese communities of China and Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 31(1):303-318. https://doi.org.10.47836/pjssh.31.1.16

Andersen, K. N.. (2018). Evaluation of school tasks in the light of sustainability education: Textbook research in science education in Luxembourgish primary schools. Environmental Education Research. 24(9), 1301–1319. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2017.1384798

Bächtold, M. (2018). How should energy be defined throughout schooling?. Research in Science Education, 48, 345-367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9571-5

Bergqvist, A., & Chang Rundgren, S. N. (2017). The influence of textbooks on teachers’ knowledge of chemical bonding representations relative to students’ difficulties understanding. Research in Science and Technological Education, 35(2), 215–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2017.1295934

Burton, R. S. (2014). Readability, logodiversity, and the effectiveness of college science textbooks. Bioscene: Journal of College Biology Teaching, 40(1), 3-10.

Cheung, K. K. C., & Winterbottom, M. (2021). Students’ integration of textbook representations into their understanding of photomicrographs: epistemic network analysis. Research in Science & Technological Education, 41(2), 544-563 https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2021.1920382

Conley, J. E., Meisel, A. J., & Smith, J. J. (2016). Using M&M's to model Sanger's dideoxy DNA sequencing method. The American Biology Teacher, 78(6), 516-522. https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2016.78.6.516

Danielsson, K., & Selander, S. (2016). Reading multimodal texts for learning--A model for cultivating multimodal literacy. Designs for learning, 8(1), 25-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.16993/dfl.72

Dasilva, B. E., Ardiyati, T. K., Suparno, S., Sukardiyono, S., et al. (2019). Development of android-based Interactive Physics Mobile Learning Media (IPMLM) with scaffolding learning approach to improve HOTS of high school students in Indonesia. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 7(3), 659-681. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.610377

Detillion, R.. (2021). Using science texts to foster informational reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher. 74(6), 677-690. https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.1991

Dhitareka, P. H., Hidayat, A., & Siahaan, P. (2022). Comparison of Nature of Science Profile in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore Secondary Science Textbooks: Case of Electricity Lesson. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(5), 2299–2306. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v8i5.1878

Diken, E. H. (2020). The sources of cognitive and metacognitive strategies used by 7th grade students while reading the "cells and divisions" unit. International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(5), 30-48. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2020.277.3

Dogan, O. K. (2021). Methodological? or dialectical?: reflections of scientific inquiry in biology textbooks. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19(8), 1563–1585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-020-10120-7

Dwiyatno, S., Krisnaningsih, E., Sulistiyono, Wahyuningrum, R. W., & Juniarti, A. D. (2022). Peningkatan kompetensi guru pesantren melalui pendampingan pembuatan buku ajar kreatif dan inovatif. Dinamisia : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 6(6), 1641-1651. https://doi.org/10.31849/dinamisia.v6i6.11633

Gregorčič, T., & Torkar, G. (2022). Using the structure-behavior-function model in conjunction with augmented reality helps students understand the complexity of the circulatory system. Advances in Physiology Education, 46(3), 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00015.2022

Holubova, R. (2015). How to motivate our students to study physics?. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(10), 727-734. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2015.031011

Jian, Y. C.. (2016). Fourth graders' cognitive processes and learning strategies for reading illustrated biology texts: eye movement measurements. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(1), 93-109. https://doi.org/10.1002/RRQ.125

Kadam, S., Chattopadhyay, A., & Kaushik, K. S. (2022). Of biofilms and beehives: An analogy-based instructional tool to introduce biofilms in school and undergraduate curriculum. Biofilm, 4, 100066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioflm.2021.100066

Karim, N., Othman, H., Zaini, Z. I. I., Rosli, Y., Wahab, M. I. A., Al Kanta, A. M., Omar, S., & Sahani, M. (2022). Climate change and environmental education: Stance from science teachers. Sustainability, 14(24), 16618. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416618

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2017a). Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Bilangan 4 Tahun 2017 (KPM. 100-1/7/2 Jld. 3 (88)). https://www.moe.gov.my/pekeliling/2798-surat-pekeliling-ikhtisas-kementerian- pendidikan-malaysia-bilangan-4-tahun-2017-pembekalan-buku-teks-kepada-guru-sekolah-rendah-dan-sekolah-menengah-di-bawah-skim-pinjaman-buku-teks-kementerian-pendidikan-malaysia/file Tarikh akses: 30 Oktober 2023.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2017b). Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Bilangan 5 Tahun 2017 (KPM. 100-1/7/2 Jld. 3 (89)). https://www.moe.gov.my/pekeliling/2799-surat-pekeliling-ikhtisas-kementerian- pendidikan-malaysia-bilangan-5-tahun-2017-dasar-pinjaman-buku-teks-kepada- murid-di-bawah-skim-pinjaman-buku-teks-kementerian-pendidikan-malaysia/file Tarikh akses: 30 Oktober 2023.

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (n. d.). Buku teks. Retreived May 13, 2024, from https://www.moe.gov.my/index.php/buku-teks

Latif, A. H. A., Rahim, M. S. M., Ismail, A. W., Suaib, N. M., Aladin, M. Y. F., & Nor’a, M. N. A. (2020). Educational science game for early primary school. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 979, No. 1, p. 012012). IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/979/1/012012

Lopez, E. N. B., Maraño, C. M. B., Origenes, R. W., Pizaña, A. D., Salmo, J. M., & Picardal, J. P. (2022). Content analysis of cell division concepts in senior high school biology textbooks. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia (JPBI), 8(2), 159-177. https://doi.org/10.22219/jpbi.v8i2.18545

Ma, Y., Wang, T., Wang, J., Chen, A. L. R., & Yan, X.. (2019). A comparative study on scientific inquiry activities of Chinese science textbooks in high schools. Research in Science Education, 51(1), 407-427. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11165-019-09902-Z

Mason, S. L., & Kimmons, R.. (2018). Effects of open textbook adoption on teachers’ open practices. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/IRRODL.V19I3.3517

McDonald, C. V.. (2015). Evaluating junior secondary science textbook usage in Australian schools. Research in Science Education, 46(4), 481-509. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11165-015-9468-8

Menendez, D., Mathiaparanam, O. N., Liu, D., Seitz, V., Alibali, M. W., & Rosengren, K. S. (2020). Representing variability: The case of life cycle diagrams. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 19(3), ar49. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.19-11-0251

Morales, R., & Baker, A. (2018). Secondary students’ perceptions of open science textbooks. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2018(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.5334/jime.455

Morris, B. J., Masnick, A. M., Baker, K., & Junglen, A. (2015). An analysis of data activities and instructional supports in middle school science textbooks. International Journal of Science Education, 37(16), 2708-2720. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2015.1101655

Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ 2021;372:n71. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n71.

Pedreira, A. J., & Carneiro, M. H. da S. (2019). How the textbook is inserted in the pedagogical practice of Biology high school teachers in Sobradinho, Distrito Federal, Brazil. IARTEM E-Journal, 10(1-2), 91-106. https://doi.org/10.21344/iartem.v10i1-2.717

Peti-Stantić, A., Keresteš, G. & Gnjidić, V. (2021). Can textbook analysis help us understand why croatian students seldom read their textbooks?. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 26(2), 293–310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-020- 09485-z

Quílez, J.. (2021). Le châtelier’s principle a language, methodological and ontological obstacle: an analysis of general chemistry textbooks. Science & Education. 30(5), 1253–1288. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11191-021-00214-1

Roman, D., Jones, F., Basaraba, D., & Hironaka, S. (2016). Helping students bridge inferences in science texts using graphic organizers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 60(2), 121-130. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.555

Sabudin, G., & Halim, L. (2020). Kajian sistematik: Pendekatan pengajaran dan impak khazanah pengetahuan dalam pembelajaran sains: Systematic research: Approaches to teaching and the impact of treasuring knowledge in science learning. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 10(1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.37134/jpsmm.vol10.1.4.2020

Saleh, S. & Tay, A. J. (2020). Instructional practices in science education in German and Malaysian secondary schools: A comparative case study. International Journal of Instruction, 13(4), 267-282. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2020.13417a

Sari, B. Y. P., & Sayekti, I. C. (2023). Talking stick learning model assisted by media question box: Effectiveness on science learning outcomes in elementary schools. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, 7(1), 35-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.23887/jere.v7i1.58196

Scott, T. P., Schroeder, C., Tolson, H., Huang, T. Y., & Williams, O. M. (2014). A longitudinal study of a 5th grade science curriculum based on the 5E model. Science Educator, 23(1), 49-55.

Shahid, S., Kanwal, W., & Parveen, K. (2023). Effectiveness of science textbook activities for conceptual understanding of students. Journal of Management Practices, Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.33152/jmphss-7.2.1

Shahril, N. F. M., & Halim, L. (2020). Strategi pembelajaran fizik dan faktor-faktor mempengaruhi pemilihan di kalangan pelajar tingkatan empat. International Conference On Education, Ethics, Legal, Social Science And Technology (Iceelst 2020). 118-127.

Shekarbaghani, A.. (2016). Comparative study of physics curriculum in iran with several other countries. International Education Studies, 9(8), 112-119. https://doi.org/10.5539/IES.V9N8P112

Sideri, A., & Skoumios, M.. (2021). Science process skills in the Greek primary school science textbooks. Science Education International. 32(3), 231–236. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.33828/sei.v32.i3.

Suárez, Á., Martí, A. C., Zuza, K., & Guisasola, J. (2023). Electromagnetic field presented in introductory physics textbooks and consequences for its teaching. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 19(2), 020113. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.19.020113

Subrahim, V., & Rosli, R. (2023). Content analysis and continuity of the time and time topics in national primary school (SK) mathematics textbooks year 1 to year 6: Analisis kandungan dan kesinambungan topik masa dan waktu dalam buku teks matematik sekolah rendah kebangsaan (SK) tahun 1 hingga tahun 6. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 13(1), 112–124. https://doi.org/10.37134/jpsmm.vol13.1.9.2023

Tay, Y. S., & Rosli, R. (2022). An analysis on cognitive domain in the topic of money for year 5 and year 6 mathematics textbooks revised KSSR 2017: Analisis domain kognitif bagi topik wang dalam buku teks matematik tahun 5 dan tahun 6 KSSR semakan 2017. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 12(2), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.37134/jpsmm.vol12.2.1.2022

Tor, G. Y., & Rosli, R. (2022). Content analysis on space topic in 2021 revised KSSR mathematics textbook: analisis kandungan topik ruang dalam buku teks matematik kssr semakan 2021. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 12(2), 93–106. https://doi.org/10.37134/jpsmm.vol12.2.7.2022

Ulerick, S. L. (n.d.). Using textbooks for meaningful learning in science. NARST. https://narst.org/research-matters/using-textbooks-for-meaningful-learning

Upahi, J. E., & Ramnarain, U. (2023). Analysis of chemical representations in the physical science textbools for grade 12 learners in South Africa. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 31(1), 42-54. https://www.doi.org/10.30722/ijisme.31.01.004

Villarroel, P. A. C. (2016). Teaching strategies in the Venezuelan chemistry textbooks for teaching the basic concepts of measurement, matter and energy. Revista de Comunicacion de la SEECI, 2016(39), 17-45. 10.15198/seeci.2016.39.17-45

Vojíř, K., & Rusek, M. (2019). Science education textbook research trends: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Science Education, 41(11), 1496–1516. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2019.1613584

Vojíř, K., & Rusek, M. (2021). Preferred chemistry curriculum perspective: Teachers’ perception of lower-secondary school textbooks. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 20(2), 316–331. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.316

Vojíř, K., & Rusek, M. (2022). Teachers and textbooks: lower secondary teachers’ perceived importance and use of chemistry textbook components. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 23(4), 786–798. https://doi.org/10.1039/D2RP00083K




How to Cite

Ridzuwan, A. Z., Halim, L., & Wan Mohammad, W. M. R. (2024). A Conceptual framework of teacher and student strategies in the use of science textbooks through a systematic literature review. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 14(2), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.37134/jpsmm.vol14.2.1.2024