Overview of Medicinal Properties and Toxicities of Agarwood Species

  • Azam Muzafar Ahmad Mokhtar Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Haniza Hanim Mohd Zain Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Mohammed Muayad TA Environmental Research Centre, University of Technology, Baghdad, IRAQ
Keywords: Agarwood, Aquilaria, Medicinal plants, Medicinal properties, Toxicity

Abstract

Agarwood is a type of wood that originated from an Aquilaria tree. It is considered to be a highly valuable resin that formed inside the main stem. The tree belongs in the Thymelaeaceae family and there are numerous types of Aquilaria tree available. The common ones are Aquilaria malaccensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aquilaria crassna, and Aquilaria subintegra due to its being favoured among planters. In order to avoid any wastage, planters used various parts of the Aquilaria tree such as the leaves, stem, bark and root to produce various types of agarwood products (i.e.oud oil, agarwood tea, and incense). Based on the extensive researches that had been carried out, it was discovered that the agarwood or Aquilaria tree possess various medicinal properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antidiabetic, antihistaminic, antianxiety, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, laxative, and improved neural activity. Although agarwood contained various medicinal properties, there are still insufficient information regarding its toxicity, resulted in the halt on the production of agarwood medicine. Therefore, this article summarized the various pharmacological properties of agarwood and its known toxicity, that will be used for future studies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Christenhusz, Maarten J. M., and James W. Byng. 2016. “The Number of Known Plants Species in the World and Its Annual Increase.” Phytotaxa 261(3):201. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.

Shakya, Arvind Kumar. n.d. “Medicinal Plants: Future Source of New Drugs.” International Journal of Herbal Medicine 4(4):2016. doi: 10.13140/rg.2.1.1395.6085.

World Health Organization, ed. 1999. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Aimi Zafirah, Shiou Yih Lee, and Rozi Mohamed. 2017. “Pharmacological Properties of Agarwood Tea Derived from Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) Leaves: An Emerging Contemporary Herbal Drink.” Journal of Herbal Medicine 10:37–44. doi: 10.1016/j.hermed.2017.06.002.

Knecht, David A., Rebecca A. LaFleur, Alem W. Kahsai, Christian E. Argueta, Anwar B. Beshir, and Gabriel Fenteany. 2010. “Cucurbitacin I Inhibits Cell Motility by Indirectly Interfering with Actin Dynamics” edited by R. C. May. PLoS ONE 5(11):e14039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014039.

Nie, Chunxiao, Yuelin Song, Dong Chen, Peifeng Xue, Pengfei Tu, Keyuan Wang, and Jinming Chen. 2009. “Studies on Chemical Constituents of Leaves of Aquilaria Sinensis.” China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 34(7):858–60.

Zhong, Mei, Yanjuan Liu, Junxi Liu, Duolong Di, Mengrou Xu, Yaya Yang, Wenguang Li, Yali Chen, and Jinxia Liu. 2014. “Isocorydine Derivatives and Their Anticancer Activities.” Molecules 19(8):12099–115. doi: 10.3390/molecules190812099.

Chen, Chuan-Hung, Tony Chien-Yen Kuo, Meng-Han Yang, Ting-Ying Chien, Mei-Ju Chu, Li-Chun Huang, Chien-Yu Chen, Hsiao-Feng Lo, Shih-Tong Jeng, and Long-Fang O. Chen. 2014. “Identification of Cucurbitacins and Assembly of a Draft Genome for Aquilaria Agallocha.” BMC Genomics 15(1):578. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-578.

Dahham, Saad, Yasser Tabana, Muhammad Iqbal, Mohamed Ahamed, Mohammed Ezzat, Aman Majid, and Amin Majid. 2015. “The Anticancer, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria Crassna.” Molecules 20(7):11808–29. doi: 10.3390/molecules200711808.

Wu, X., H. Li, Q. Mei, H. Lin, L. Liang, H. Yang, and Z. Lan. 2013. “A Comparative Study on the Asthma Effect of Aquilaria Leaves and Agarwood.” Pharm. Today 23:346–47.

Wang, H. 2008. “Determination of Genkwanin in the Leaves of Aquilaria Sinensis(Lour.) Gilg with HPLC.” Guiding J. Trad. Chin. Med. Pharm 14:69–70.

Kakino, Mamoru, and Hideaki Hara. 2016. “Pharmacological Effects of Aquilaria Spp. Leaves and Their Chemical Constituents.” Pp. 125–36 in Agarwood, Tropical Forestry, edited by R. Mohamed. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Li, H., Z. Jiang, and Q. Mei. 2013. “Comparative Study on the Effect of Aquilaria Sinensis Leaf Tea and Agarwood on Promoting Small Intestine Propulsion.” Asia-Pacific Tradit. Med 9(6):24–25.

Sandler, Brian, and Peter Aronson. 1993. “Yohimbine-Induced Cutaneous Drug Eruption, Progressive Renal Failure, and Lupus-like Syndrome.” Urology 41(4):343–45. doi: 10.1016/0090-4295(93)90592-X.

Lee, Shiou Yih, and Rozi Mohamed. 2016. “The Origin and Domestication of Aquilaria, an Important Agarwood-Producing Genus.” Tropical Forestry 1–20. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-0833-7_1.

Tan, Cheng Seng, Nurulhikma Md Isa, Ismanizan Ismail, and Zamri Zainal. 2019. “Agarwood Induction: Current Developments and Future Perspectives.” Frontiers in Plant Science 10:122. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00122.

Liu, Yangyang, Huaiqiong Chen, Yun Yang, Zheng Zhang, Jianhe Wei, Hui Meng, Weiping Chen, Jindong Feng, Bingchun Gan, Xuyu Chen, Zhihui Gao, Junqin Huang, Bo Chen, and Hongjiang Chen. 2013. “Whole-Tree Agarwood-Inducing Technique: An Efficient Novel Technique for Producing High-Quality Agarwood in Cultivated Aquilaria Sinensis Trees.” Molecules 18(3):3086–3106. doi: 10.3390/molecules18033086.

Subasinghe, and Hettiarachchi. 2013. “Agarwood Resin Production and Resin Quality of Gyrinops Walla Gaertn.” International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(1):357–262. doi: 10.13140/2.1.4907.8405.

López-Sampson, Arlene, and Tony Page. 2018. “History of Use and Trade of Agarwood.” Economic Botany 72(1):107–29. doi: 10.1007/s12231-018-9408-4.

Lubrecht, Harry, and Pietro Andrea Mattioli. 1565. Petri Andreæ Matthioli Senensis Medici, Commentarii in Sex Libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei De Medica Materia /. Venetiis: Ex Officina Valgrisiana,.

Barden, Angela, Noorainie Awang, Teresa Mulliken, and Michael Song. 2000. Heart of the Matter: Agarwood Use and Trade and CITES Implementation for Aquilaria Malaccensis. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC International.

Singh R. 2015. “Medicinal Plants: A Review.” Journal of Plant Sciences 3(1–1):50–55. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.s.2015030101.18.

Elias, Fauzi, Husni Ibrahim, and Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod. 2017. “A Review on the Malaysian Aquilaria Species in Karas Plantation and Agarwood Production.” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 7(4):1021–29. doi: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i4/2911.

Ismail M. 2014. “Cabaran Dan Halatuju Perladangan Karas Di Malaysia.” Fakuti Perhutanan, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Naziz, Pearlin Shabna, Runima Das, and Supriyo Sen. 2019. “The Scent of Stress: Evidence From the Unique Fragrance of Agarwood.” Frontiers in Plant Science 10. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00840.

Aimi Zafirah, Saiful Nizam Tajuddin, Sudmoon Runglawan, Arunrat Chaveerach, Abdullah UH, Mahat MN, and Rozi Mohamed. 2018. “Chemical Constituents and Toxicity Effects of Leaves from Several Agarwood Tree Species (Aquilaria).” JOURNAL OF TROPICAL FOREST SCIENCE 30(3):342–53. doi: 10.26525/jtfs2018.30.3.342353.

Aeri, Vidhu, Ujjwal Kaushik, and ShowkatR Mir. 2015. “Cucurbitacins - An Insight into Medicinal Leads from Nature.” Pharmacognosy Reviews 9(17):12. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.156314.

Li, Jian, and Bing Zhou. 2010. “Biological Actions of Artemisinin: Insights from Medicinal Chemistry Studies.” Molecules 15(3):1378–97. doi: 10.3390/molecules15031378.

Wang, Meng-Ru, Wei Li, Sha Luo, Xin Zhao, Chun-Hui Ma, and Shou-Xin Liu. 2018. “GC-MS Study of the Chemical Components of Different Aquilaria Sinensis (Lour.) Gilgorgans and Agarwood from Different Asian Countries.” Molecules 23(9):2168. doi: 10.3390/molecules23092168.

Zhou, Minhua, Honggang Wang, Suolangjiba, Junping Kou, and Boyang Yu. 2008. “Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aquilaria Sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Leaves Extract.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117(2):345–50. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.005.

Rahman, Habibur, M. Chinna Eswaraiah, and A. M. Dutta. 2016. “Anti-Arthritic Activity of Leaves and Oil of Aquilaria Agallocha.” Haya: The Saudi Journal of Life Sciences 1(1):34–43.

Aniszewski, Tadeusz. 2015. Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, and Applications. Second. Elsevier.

Sattayasai, Jintana, Jirawat Bantadkit, Chantana Aromdee, Eric Lattmann, and Wanchai Airarat. 2012. “Antipyretic, Analgesic and Anti-Oxidative Activities of Aquilaria Crassna Leaves Extract in Rodents.” Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 3(4):175. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.104427.

Kumphune, Sarawut, Eakapot Prompunt, Kanitha Phaebuaw, Piyanuch Sriudwong, Rungnapa Pankla, and Panumart Thongyoo. 2011. “Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Aquilaria Crassna Inhibits LPS-Induced Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha Production by Attenuating P38 MAPK Activation.” International Journal of Green Pharmacy 5(1):43. doi: 10.4103/0973-8258.82099.

Said, Fauzia, and M. T. Kamaluddin. 2016. “Theodorus 2016 Efficacy of the Aquilaria Malaccensis Leaves Active Fraction in Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle on Diabetic Wistar Rats.” International Journal of Health Sciences and Research 6(7):162–67.

Pranakhon, Ratree, Patchareewan Pannangpetch, and Chantana Aromdee. 2011. “Antihyperglycemic Activity of Agarwood Leaf Extracts in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats and Glucose Uptake Enhancement Activity in Rat Adipocytes.” Songklanakarin Journal of Science & Technology 33(4):405–10.

Mei, Q., H. Li, H. Lin, X. Wu, L. Liang, H. Yang, and Z. Lan. 2013. “Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic Effect between Aquilaria Sinensis Leaves and Agarwood.” Lishizhen Med. Mat. Med. Res 24:1606–7.

Feng, Jie, Xiu-Wei Yang, and Ru-Feng Wang. 2011. “Bio-Assay Guided Isolation and Identification of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from the Leaves of Aquilaria Sinensis.” Phytochemistry 72(2):242–47. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.11.025.

Duan, Z., W. Li, Z. Dou, H. Xie, A. He, and M. Shi. 2015. “Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids from Aquilaria Sinensis (Lour.) Gilg Leaves.” Food Science 36:45–50.

Han, W. 2013. “Protective Effect and Mechanism of Aloeswood Tea Against Hydroxyl Radical-Induced DNA Damage Masters Thesis.” Guangzhou University of Chinese Traditional Medicine.

Simatupang, J., R. Batubara, and E. Julianti. 2015. “Consumers’ Acceptance and Antioxidant of the Agarwood ( Aquilaria Malaccensis Lamk.) Leaves Tea Based on the Shape and Size of Leaves.” Peronema For. Sci. J 4:1–11.

Bahrani, Hirbod, Jamaludin Mohamad, Mohammadjavad Paydar, and Hussin Rothan. 2014. “Isolation and Characterisation of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Aquilaria Subintegra for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).” Current Alzheimer Research 11(2):206–14. doi: 10.2174/1567205011666140130151344.

Huda, A. W. N., M. A. S. Munira, S. D. Fitrya, and M. Salmah. 2009. “Antioxidant Activity of Aquilaria Malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae) Leaves.” Pharmacognosy Research 1(5):270–73.

Jangra, Ashok, Manish M. Lukhi, Kunjbihari Sulakhiya, Chandana C. Baruah, and Mangala Lahkar. 2014. “Protective Effect of Mangiferin against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive and Anxiety-like Behaviour in Mice.” European Journal of Pharmacology 740:337–45. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.031.

Saïdana, Dhouha, Samia Mahjoub, Olfa Boussaada, Jihane Chriaa, Mohamed Ali Mahjoub, Imed Chéraif, Majda Daami, Zine Mighri, and Ahmed Noureddine Helal. 2008. “Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of the Essential Oils of Two Saltcedar Species from Tunisia.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 85(9):817–26. doi: 10.1007/s11746-008-1251-9.

Khalil, A. S., A. A. Rahim, K. K. Taha, and K. B. Abdallah. 2013. “Characterization of Methanolic Extracts of Agarwood Leaves.” Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences 1(3):78–88.

Kamonwannasit, Sirilak, Nawarat Nantapong, Pakarang Kumkrai, Prathan Luecha, Sajeera Kupittayanant, and Nuannoi Chudapongse. 2013. “Antibacterial Activity of Aquilaria Crassna Leaf Extract against Staphylococcus Epidermidis by Disruption of Cell Wall.” Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 12(1):20. doi: 10.1186/1476-0711-12-20.

Jiang, Shan, and Peng-Fei Tu. 2011. “Effects of 95% Ethanol Extract of Aquilaria Sinensis Leaves on Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Db/Db Mice.” Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences 20(6). doi: 10.5246/jcps.2011.06.079.

Wang, Fang, Juming Yan, Yanfen Niu, Yan Li, Hua Lin, Xu Liu, Jikai Liu, and Ling Li. 2014. “Mangiferin and Its Aglycone, Norathyriol, Improve Glucose Metabolism by Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.” Pharmaceutical Biology 52(1):68–73. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2013.814691.

Alam, Janey, Md. Mujahid, Badruddeen, Yasmeen Jahan, Paramdeep Bagga, and Md. Azizur Rahman. 2017. “Hepatoprotective Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Aquilaria Agallocha Leaves against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in SD Rats.” Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 7(1):9–13. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.12.006.

Wu, W., Z. Zhu, L. Lin, D. Chen, J. Yao, and F. Liao. 2012. “The Active Ingredient for Hypolipidemic Effect in Aquilaria Sinensis Leaves.” Pp. 2–4 in Chinese Phamacertical Association. Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Twelfth Chinese Medicine and Natural Medicine. Beijing.

Costa, J. P., P. B. Ferreira, D. P. De Sousa, J. Jordan, and R. M. Freitas. 2012. “Anticonvulsant Effect of Phytol in a Pilocarpine Model in Mice.” Neuroscience Letters 523(2):115–18. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.06.055.

Guo, Jiyu, Weijun Wang, Hongju Fang, Qian Liu, Wuyan Zhang, Dali Yin, Sujuan Sun, Ruiwu Liu, Chun Li, and Haifan Liu. 2002. “Agarofuan Derivatives, Their Preparation, Pharmaceutical Composition Containing Them and Their Use as Medicine.”

Kakino, Mamoru, Shigemi Tazawa, Hiroe Maruyama, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoko Araki, Masamitsu Shimazawa, and Hideaki Hara. 2010. “Laxative Effects of Agarwood on Low-Fiber Diet-Induced Constipation in Rats.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10(1):68. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-68.

Takemoto, Hiroaki, Michiho Ito, Tomohiro Shiraki, Toru Yagura, and Gisho Honda. 2007. “Sedative Effects of Vapor Inhalation of Agarwood Oil and Spikenard Extract and Identification of Their Active Components.” Journal of Natural Medicines 62(1):41–46. doi: 10.1007/s11418-007-0177-0.

Suwannasing. 2012. “Anti-Ischemic Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Aquilaria Crassna by Attenuation of P38-MAPK Activation.” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2(10):026–030. doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2012.21005.

Martini, N. D., D. R. P. Katerere, and J. N. Eloff. 2004. “Biological Activity of Five Antibacterial Flavonoids from Combretum Erythrophyllum (Combretaceae).” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93(2–3):207–12. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.030.

Huang, J., H. Chen, Z. Yu, Y. Zhou, and G. Ning. 2016. “Effects of Different Ratios of Aquilaria Sinensis Leaf Meal on the Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance and Nutrients Digestibility of Broiler.” China Feed 11:36–42.

Nur Hidayat Che Musa, Haniza Hanim Mohd Zain, Husni Ibrahim, and Nor Nasibah Mohd Jamil. 2019. “Evaluation of Acute and Sub-Acute Oral Toxicity Effect of Aquilaria Malaccensis Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male ICR Mice.” Natural Product Sciences 25(2):157. doi: 10.20307/nps.2019.25.2.157.

Akter, Selina, Md Tavir Islam, Mohd Zulkefeli, and Sirajul Islam Khan. 2013. “Agarwood Production-a Multidisciplinary Field to Be Explored in Bangladesh.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences 2(1):22–32.

Chowdhury, Milon, Md Daulat Hussain, Sun-Ok Chung, Ehsanul Kabir, and Afroja Rahman. 2016. “Agarwood Manufacturing: A Multidisciplinary Opportunity for Economy of Bangladesh-a Review.” Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 18(3):171–78.

Zhou R, Yang B, and Wang Y. H. 2016. “Higher Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Cultivated versus Natural Agarwood Incense Smoke.” Environmental Chemistry Letters 14(4):501–6. doi: 10.1007/s10311-016-0567-1.

Redzuan Razak, Suzanah Rahman, Asmah Hamdan, Roszaman Ramli, Lokman Md Isa, Hussin Muhammad, and Nik Fakhuruddin Nik Hassan. 2018. “Evaluation of Acute and Sub-Acute Oral Toxicity of the Aqueous Extract of Aquilaria Malaccensis Leaves in Sprague Dawley Rats.” Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 27(1):20–32. doi: 10.35118/apjmbb.2019.027.1.03.

Ghan, Sheah Yee, Jin Han Chin, Yin Yin Thoo, Hip Seng Yim, and Chun Wai Ho. 2016. “Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Aquilaria Crassna and α-Tocopherol in Mice.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 7(4):1456–61.

Li, Q., J. Huang, Y. Yang, M. Chen, Y. Liang, and X. Chen. 2015. “Research on the Acute Toxicity and Genetic Toxicity of Aquilaria Sinensis(Lour.) Gilg: Leaf.” Chin. J. Health Lab. Technol 25:1518–21.

Published
2021-07-12
How to Cite
Ahmad Mokhtar, A. M., Mohd Zain, H. H., & TA, M. M. (2021). Overview of Medicinal Properties and Toxicities of Agarwood Species. EDUCATUM Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology, 8(2), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.37134/ejsmt.vol8.2.1.2021