Model Peramalan Bilangan Calon Tarik Diri dari Peperiksaan Awam Malaysia Menerusi Pendekatan Perlombongan Data dan Petua

Non-Attendance Candidates’ Prediction Model for Malaysia Public Exam Using Data Mining and Rules Approach

  • Zaiyinul Hayat Zainal Rafit Lembaga Peperiksaan, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
  • Suhaila Zainudin UKM
  • Zulaiha Ali Othman UKM
Keywords: perlombongan data, peramalan, model, petua, CRISP-DM

Abstract

Abstrak

Peningkatan jumlah data tersimpan tentang hal akademik pelajar bermula dari tahap sekolah rendah, sekolah menengah, kolej hingga universiti telah dibantu dengan perkembangan teknologi storan data. Data yang pelbagai ini wajar diekstrak ke dalam pengetahuan yang membantu dalam pembuatan keputusan dari pelbagai peringkat. Isu calon yang tidak hadir peperiksaan umum adalah masalah berkala dan memberi kesan kepada usaha mengoptimumkan kos pengurusan dalam era perbelanjaan berhemah. Sebanyak 15 peratus hingga 30 peratus calon tidak hadir peperiksaan awam berdasarkan analisis ke atas data untuk sepuluh tahun dari 2007 hingga 2016. Memandangkan masalah ini wujud saban tahun, kajian ini mencadangkan penyelesaian menggunakan perlombongan data bagi membangunkan model untuk meramal calon yang berpotensi tidak hadir peperiksaan awam (Sijil Tinggi Agama Malaysia @ STAM). Pendekatan yang dicadang terdiri dari enam langkah; bermula dari pemahaman bisnes, pemahaman data, penyediaan data, permodelan, penilaian dan pengerahan. Keputusan mendapati gred yang diperoleh untuk subjek Bahasa Inggeris, Matematik dan Sains dalam keputusan peperiksaan awam tingkatan lima iaitu Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia adalah faktor utama bagi menarik diri daripada peperiksaan STAM untuk seseorang calon. Faktor ini seterusnya diwakili dalam bentuk model berasaskan petua. Penilaian ke atas model membuktikan bahawa model berpotensi untuk meramal bilangan calon yang mungkin tidak hadir peperiksaan. Ramalan ini telah disimulasi dan didapati boleh menjimatkan 10 peratus dari kos percetakan kertas soalan dan buku jawapan untuk peperiksaan STAM. Hasil kajian ini boleh dimanfaat oleh Lembaga Peperiksaan dengan membuat unjuran perbelanjaan setiap tahun bagi operasi peperiksaan dengan menggunakan model ramalan bilangan calon tarik diri. Manakala, pihak sekolah dan ibu bapa boleh memanfaatkan kajian ini untuk mencari kaedah bagi menambah baik pencapaian akademik pelajar.

Abstract

Advances in data storage technology have spurred growth in stored data on students’ academic for primary, secondary, college, and university levels. The Education Ministry could extract the rich data into knowledge to aid decision making at different levels. The issue of candidates who did not attend public exams is a recurrent problem and affects the efforts to optimize management cost in the era of prudent spending. Around 15 percent to 30 percent candidates did not attend the public exam based on a ten-year analysis from 2007 until 2016. Since the problem recurs yearly, this research proposes a solution based on data mining to develop a model that predicts candidate who has a high potential of not attending a public examination exam (i.e. Sijil Tinggi Agama Malaysia @ STAM). The proposed approach has six steps; business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation, and deployment. The results discovered that the grades obtained for English, Mathematics and Science in the public examination taken in Form 5 (Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia) are the main factors for the non-attendance of a candidate for the STAM examination. The research then implemented a rule-based model based on these factors. Model evaluation proves that the model can predict the number of candidates that may not attend the examination. The prediction has been simulated and can save up to 10 percent of the printing cost for exam papers and answer books for the STAM examination. These results can benefit Lembaga Peperiksaan by projecting the yearly expenditure for exam operations using the non-attendance candidates’ prediction model. Additionally, the school and parent may use this research to improve the students' academic performance.

 

Keywords: data mining, prediction, model, rules, CRISP-DM.

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Published
2021-06-09
How to Cite
Zainal Rafit, Z. H., Zainudin, S., & Ali Othman, Z. (2021). Model Peramalan Bilangan Calon Tarik Diri dari Peperiksaan Awam Malaysia Menerusi Pendekatan Perlombongan Data dan Petua. Journal of ICT in Education, 8(1), 26-42. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/JICTIE/article/view/5338