Forecasting Carbon Monoxide (CO) Pollutant in Putrajaya using the Local Mean Approximation Method

Peramalan Bahan Pencemar Karbon Monoksida (CO) di Putrajaya Menggunakan Kaedah Penghampiran Purata Setempat

  • Shahidatul Idayu Shahizam Jabatan Matematik, Fakulti Sains dan Matematik, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Nor Zila Abd Hamid Jabatan Matematik, Fakulti Sains dan Matematik, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Syafruddin Side Jabatan Matematik, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Makassar, Indonesia
Keywords: Carbon Monoxide Time Series, Local Mean Approximation Method, Chaotic Approach, Phase Space Plot, Cao Method


Air polution is a great concern to all parties because it is not only affects human health but also affects the environment and the development of the country. This study examines the forecast of carbon monoxide (CO) in metropolitan areas in Malaysia using the local mean approximation method. This study aims to predict the concentration of CO pollutant that has been observed hourly at the selected area which is Putrajaya. The delay time parameter  was obtained from the determination  method while embedding dimension  was obtained from the Cao method. The presence of chaotic dynamics is successfully detected by using the Cao method and the phase space plot. The one-hour forward forecasting process of CO time series using  and  was carried out using the Local Mean Approximation Method. The result showed that correlation coefficient value is 0.7674 which is close to 1. This forecasting is expected to assist those stakeholders in managing CO pollution effectively especially in metropolitan areas in Malaysia.


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How to Cite
Shahizam, S. I., Abd Hamid, N. Z., & Side, S. (2021). Forecasting Carbon Monoxide (CO) Pollutant in Putrajaya using the Local Mean Approximation Method. Journal of Science and Mathematics Letters, 9, 63-71.