Human and Computation-based Music Representation for Gamelan Music


  • Arry Maulana Syarif Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
  • Azhari Azhari Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
  • Suprapto Suprapto Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
  • Khafiizh Hastuti Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Indonesia



human and computation based, music representation, computer music, gamelan


A public database containing representative data of karawitan traditional music is needed as a resource for researchers who study computer music and karawitan. To establish this database, a text-based pitch model for music representation that is both human and computer-based was first investigated. A new model of musical representation that can be read by humans and computers is proposed to support music and computer research on karawitan also known as gamelan music. The model is expected to serve as the initial effort to establish a public database of karawitan music representation data. The proposed model was inspired by Helmholtz Notation and Scientific Pitch Notation and well-established, text-based pitch representation systems. The model was developed not only for pitch number, high or low or middle pitch information (octave information), but for musical elements found in gamelan sheet music pieces that include pitch value and legato signs. The model was named Gendhing Scientific Pitch Notation (GSPN). Ghending is a Javanese word that means “song”. The GSPN model was designed to represent music by formulating musical elements from a sheet music piece. Furthermore, the model can automatically be converted to other music representation formats. In the experiment, data in the GSPN format was implemented to automatically convert sheet music to a binary code with localist representation technique.


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Author Biographies

Arry Maulana Syarif, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

Arry Maulana Syarif is a doctoral candidate in Computer Science Department of Universitas Gadjah Mada, and a lecturer at Department of Computer Science Universitas Dian Nuswantoro. His research interests are data mining, artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Azhari Azhari, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

Azhari Azhari is currently teaching at the Department of Computer Science and Electronics Universitas Gadjah Mada. His research interests are Intelligent agent, software engineering and project management.

Suprapto Suprapto, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

Suprapto Suprapto is currently teaching at the Department of Computer Science and Electronics Universitas Gadjah Mada. His research interests are machine learning, artificial intelligence, and graph theory.

Khafiizh Hastuti, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Indonesia

Khafiizh Hastuti is a lecturer at the Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro and also the founder of Gamelan Research Institute. Her research interests are artificial intelligence, software engineering, project management and algorithmic composition.


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How to Cite

Syarif, A. M., Azhari, A., Suprapto, S., & Hastuti, K. (2020). Human and Computation-based Music Representation for Gamelan Music. Malaysian Journal of Music, 9, 82–100.