The Differences in 21st-Century 4C Skills Among Diverse University Choirs in China


  • NAIXUE BAO University of Malaya



choir singing, collaboration, communication, creativity, critical thinking


Choir singing originated from the choir of Christian churches in medieval Europe and first appeared in the 1st century. However, the focus of choir education had long been on musical knowledge, neglecting the cultivation of practical skills, resulting in variations in skill performance. In the 21st century, choir singing flourished, particularly in Chinese universities. Aligned with modern educational trends, choir singing aimed to foster students' 4C skills: critical thinking, creativity, communication, and collaboration. Music educators gradually emphasized skill development, recognizing it as essential for students' future lives and careers. Nevertheless, the cultivation of these 4C skills remained at a preliminary stage, with varying understandings of skills across different universities leading to differing skill levels among choir ensemble students. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the disparities in the development of 4C skills among choir ensemble students from diverse Chinese universities. Three universities of different types were selected for the study, and a quantitative approach was employed through a case study to examine the differences in students' 4C skill development in the 21st century. Because most of the research was qualitative. Researchers distributed an online survey to all students in the music school's choir ensembles of the three universities, collecting a total of 220 valid responses. The analysis revealed that students in universities with a stronger musical emphasis exhibited a positive attitude towards skill cultivation and development. These findings provided valuable insights for the future of diverse forms of choir music education in terms of skill development.


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How to Cite

BAO, N., CHANG, Y.-L., & CHEONG, K. W. (2024). The Differences in 21st-Century 4C Skills Among Diverse University Choirs in China. Malaysian Journal of Music, 13(1), 1–17.