Learning Management in Virtual Classroom: A Phenomenological Study


  • Gino Gasang Sumalinog Cebu Normal University, PHILIPPINES
  • Erwin Corales Cebu Normal University, PHILIPPINES
  • Charess Goles Cebu Normal University, PHILIPPINES




Highs, learning management, lows, virtual classroom


This study explored the online learning management experiences of the teachers during the COVID-19 crisis. This paper used the phenomenological research design, and it employed the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as its data analysis method. A semi-structured interview was used to capture the lived experiences of the ten (10) higher education teachers from the selected schools in Central Visayas in the Philippines. After an intensive and careful analysis of the transcripts, three (3) significant themes from the teachers' perspectives emerged. They were: a) the lows; b) the highs; and c) the gains from the online learning setup. The study revealed that learning management failure was due to poor grading bases since teachers were not sure whether the students were honest in answering their tasks. The informants also noticed abysmal participation and inappropriate behavior from the students. However, they highlighted that at some point, managing a classroom online was made easy because of the secured, accessible, and organized files that teachers could use in handling their classes. They have also gained some positive personal attributes, professional teaching insights, and practical financial benefits. This study could be of great help to teachers who have not embraced the use of virtual classrooms in managing students’ learning. This is a timely research topic since the pandemic has just struck.


Download data is not yet available.


Alipio, M. (2020). Education during the COVID-19 era: Are learners in a less-economically developed country ready for e-learning? ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics. Retrieved from http://surl.li/lhgo

Arkorful, V. & Abaidoo, N. (2014). The role of e-Learning, advantages, and disadvantages of its adoption in higher education. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(12), 397-410. Retrieved from https://www.ijern.com/journal/2014/December-2014/34.pdf

Bao, W. (2020). COVID-19 and online teaching in higher education: A case study of Peking University. Humanities Behavior & Emerging Technology, 2, 113-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.191

Baticulon R. E., Alberto, N. R., Baron, M. B., Mabulay, R. C., Rizada, L. T., Sy, J. J., Tiu, C. S., Clarion, C. A., & Reyes, J. B. (2020). Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines. Medical Sciences Educator, 2-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.16.20155747

Bawa, P. (2016). Retention in online courses: Exploring issues and solutions – A literature review. Sage Journals, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2158244015621777

Bednar, L. (2019). Advantages of physical storage vs, online data storage. Secure Drive. Retrieved from https://www.securedrive.com/blog/advantages-physical-storage-over-online

Chou, H. & Chou, C. (2021). A multigroup analysis of factors underlying teachers’ technostress and their continuance intention toward online teaching. Computers & Education 175, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104335

Chua, E. R., Sibbaluca, B. G., Miranda, R. D., Palmario, G. B., Moreno, R. P., & Solon, J. T. (2020). The status of the implementation of the e-Learning classroom in selected higher education institutions in Region IV-A amidst the COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(1), 253-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.11.41

Coman, C., Tiru, L., Schmitz, L., Stanciu, C., & Bularca, M. (2020). Online teaching and learning in higher education during the coronavirus pandemic: Students' perspective. Sustainability, 12, 2-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su122410367

Daumiller, M., Rinas, R., Hein, J., Janke, S., Dickhauder, O. & Dresel, M. (2021). Shifting from face-to-face to online teaching during COVID-19: The role of university faculty achievement goals for attitudes towards this sudden change, and their relevance for burnout/engagement and student evaluations of teaching quality. Computers in Human Behavior 118, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106677

Educational Broadcasting Corporation. (2002). National Teacher Training Institute. Retrieved from https://www.thirteen.org/edonline/ntti/resources/workshops/digital_file/practice.html

E-learners. (2021, Jan 14). How you’ll be graded in an online course. Retrieved from https://www.elearners.com/education-resources/online-learning/how-youll-be-graded-in-an-online-course/

Hickey, L. (2018). 5 benefits of cloud-based e-Learning. E-Learning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/cloud-based-elearning-5-benefits

Hofer, S., Nistor, N. & Scheibenzuber, C. (2021). Online teaching and learning in higher education: Lessons learned in crises. Computers in Human Behavior 121, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106789

Joaquin, J., Biana, H., & Dacela, M. (2020) The Philippine higher education sector in the time of COVID-19. Frontier in the Education. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.576371

Kentnor, H. (2015). Distance education and the evolution of online learning in the United States. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 17(1), 21-34.

Khanna, R. & Kareem, J. (2021). Creating inclusive spaces in virtual classroom sessions during the COVID pandemic: An exploratory study of primary class teachers in India. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 2(2), 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2021.100038

Kuimova, M., Kiyanitsyna, A., & Truntyagin, A. (2015). E-Learning is a means to improve the quality of higher education. SHS Web of Conferences, 28(1), 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20162801129

Lathifah, K. Helmanto, F. & Maryani, N. (2020). The practice of effective learning management in COVID-19 time. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 27(7), 3263–3271.

Lorreiro, A. & Bettencourt, T. (2014). The use of virtual environments as an extended classroom - a case study with adult learners in tertiary education. Procedia Technology 13, 97 – 106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2014.02.013

Lynch, M. (2018). 7 benefits of cloud-based eLearning. The Tech Advocate. Retrieved from https://www.thetechedvocate.org/7-benefits-cloud-based-elearning/

Mangis, J. (2016). Online learning and the effects on functional health: A pilot study. (Master's thesis). Masters of Science in Physical Education, Cheney, Washington. Available from the EWU Masters Thesis Collection, 386. Retrieved from https://dc.ewu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1386&context=theses

Paygar, A. (2014). Challenges and opportunities of online learning in developing countries with a specific focus on Liberia. (Master's thesis). Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3j5UOuD

Phan, Q. T., Ngo, T. T. & Phan, T. T. (2019). Developing the information technology application competence of teachers in online learning. International Journal of Applied Research in Social Sciences, 1(4), 124-137. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/reader/327322830

Peacock, J. Grande, J. (2016). An online app platform enhances collaborative medical student group learning and classroom management. National Library of Medicine, 38(2), 174-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2015.1020290

Poorani, S. & Bezhovski, Z. (2016). The evolution of E-learning and new trends. Information and Knowledge Management, 6(3), 50-57. Retrieved from https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/IKM/article/view/29274

Rufai, M. Alebiosu, S. Adeakin O. (2015). A conceptual model for virtual classroom management. International Journal of VLSI Design & Communication Systems, 5(1).

Sawchuk, S. (2021). Grading students during the Coronavirus crisis: What’s the right call? Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/grading-students-during-the-coronavirus-crisis-whats-the-right-call/2020/04

Singh, C. (2016). Advantages and disadvantages of online data storage. Beginners Book. Retrieved from https://beginnersbook.com/2013/04/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-online-data-storage/

Singh, V. (2020). 10 benefits of using cloud storage. Cloud Academy. Retrieved from https://cloudacademy.com/blog/10-benefits-of-using-cloud-storage/

Smith, J., Jarman, M., & Osborn, M. (1999). Doing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). In M. Murray K. Chamberlain (Eds.) Qualitative Health Psychology, 219 – 240.

Soussi, K. (2020). Web-based learning: Characteristics, practices, challenges, and recommendations. International Journal of Science and Research, 9(3), 936-943. http://dx.doi.org/10.21275/SR20312135240

Sumalinog, G. (2022). Barriers of online education in the new normal: teachers’ perspectives. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 21(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.21.1.3

Sumalinog, G. (2020). English language teachers in diaspora: A Heideggerian phenomenology. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(11), 283-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.11.16

Stewart, D. P. (2008). Learning management in the online environment. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 371-374. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol4no3/ stewart_0908.pdf

Suresh, M., Priya, V., & Gayathri, R. (2018). Effect of e-learning on academic performance of undergraduate students. Drug Invention Today, 10(9), 1797-1800. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327202545_Effect_of_e-learning_on_academic_performance_of_undergraduate_students

Tanis, C. J. (2020). The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on its importance for teaching and learning. Research in Learning Technology, 28(1), 1-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v28.2319




How to Cite

Sumalinog, G. G., Corales, E., & Goles, C. (2022). Learning Management in Virtual Classroom: A Phenomenological Study. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 12(2), 66–81. https://doi.org/10.37134/jrpptte.vol12.2.5.2022