The Current Status of Elementary Music Education in Yangon, Myanmar
Public schools in Myanmar have offered music education as part of the regular curriculum since 2000; however, very little information is available about the current teaching practices of music education as well as differences and problems regarding music education in different types of schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of elementary music education in Yangon, Myanmar in three different types of schools: Public schools, private schools, and international schools. A mixed-method design was employed to achieve the purposes of the study. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with seven key informants. Quantitative data were collected from 93 respondents—33 music teachers and 60 classroom teachers responsible for teaching music—using a web-based questionnaire and telephone interviews. Both the quantitative and qualitative results indicated that compared to private schools and public schools, international schools receive more practical support in terms of qualified music teachers, standard music programmes, and excellent facilities. Although the Ministry of Education in Myanmar has commenced curriculum reform to include music as a compulsory subject in public schools at the elementary level since the 2016-2017 academic year, there are still many challenges regarding music training for teachers, the effectiveness of music curricula, and adequate support for music facilities and other necessities such as musical instruments, teaching aids, musical equipment, and educational resources. The findings of the study also confirm that the support of the government is crucial for music education policy and partnership in Public schools and Private schools.
Anderson, W. M. (2013). Integrating music into the elementary classroom: Cengage Learning.
Blythe, S. G. (2014). Well balanced child: Movement and early learning: Hawthorn Press Limited.
Bergland, C. (2013, November 13). Musical training optimizes brain function.
Cajas, E. G. (2007). Music education in Central America: A comparative study of educational policies and practices in Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica. [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma]. https://search.pro quest.com/docview/304834478?accountid=46528 ProQuest Dis-sertations & Theses Global database.
Campbell, P. S., & Scott-Kassner, C. (1995). Music in childhood: From preschool through the elementary grades. Schirmer Books; Prentice Hall International.
CREATE. (2018). Welcome to new primary curriculum website. https://createmm.org/en
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (Fourth ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Copland, A. (1952). Music and imagination. Harvard University Press.
Douglas, G. D. (2001). State patronage of Burmese traditional music. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Washington.
Flohr, J. W., & Trollinger, V. L. (2010). Music in elementary education. Prentice Hall.
Gersema, E. (2016, June 20). Children’s brains develop faster with music training.
Hash, P. M. (2010). Preservice classroom teachers’ attitudes toward music in the elementary curriculum. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 19(2), 6-24. doi:10.117 7/1057083709345632
Kyaw, P. W. (2015, May 18). Lining up for private schools. Myanmar Times. https://www.mmtimes.com/specialfeatures/207education2015/14525liningup-for-pr ivate-schools.html
Lee, S. (2013). The current status of music education in Korean preschools in New York and New Jersey. [Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University]. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1430906904?accountid=46528 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database.
Locker, M. (2014, December 16). This is how music can change your brain. http://time.com/3634995/study-kids-engaged-music-class-for-benefits-northwestern/
Lwin, T. (2002). Issues surrounding curriculum development in the ethnic nationality areas of Burma. Paper presented at the Burma Studies Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden.
May, B. N. (2015). A survey of early childhood public school music in the district of Columbia: Assessing content and teacher preparation. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Utah].
MOE. (2004). Development of education in Myanmar. International Bureau of Education http://www.ibe.unesco.org/National_Reports/ ICE_2004/myanmar_ ocr.pdf
MOE. (2012). Education for all: Access to and quality of education in Myanmar. United Nations Information Centre Yangon. http://yangon.sites.unicnet work.org/files/2013/05/Education-for-All-in-Myanmar-Final-2012-FEB-2.pdf
Mundle, O. N. A. (2008). Characteristics of music education programmes in public schools of Jamaica [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Texas at Austin]. https://search.proquest.com/docview/230719 387?accountid=46528 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database.
Myaing, K. S. (2004). Mahagita Myanmar classic. Mandalay Myoma Amateur Music Association.
Myanmar Laws. (2011). Myanmar Laws (2011). Union Attorney General's Office. https://myanmar-law-library.org/IMG/pdf/myanmar_laws_2011.pdf
Onishi, H., & Young, K. (2012). Western music education in post-World War II Burma/ Myanmar. In C.H. Lum & P. Whiteman (Eds.), Musical childhoods of Asia and the Pacific (pp. 215-235). Information Age Publishing.
Oxford Business Group. (2018). The report: Myanmar 2018: Oxford Business Group.
Soe, H. K. (October 31, 2016). In the Sokayeti song contest, an out of tune nation-building project. Frontier Myanmar. https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/in-the-sokayeti-song-contest-an-out-of-tune-nation-building-project
Sullivan, T., Willingham, L., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). Creativity and music education: Canadian Music Educators' Association.
Swanson, B. R. (1969). Music in the education of children (3rd ed.). Wadsworth Pub. Co.
UNICEF Myanmar. (2018). Education. https://www.unicef.org/myanmar/ education
Wood, D. (1996). Move, sing, listen, play: Preparing the young child for music, Gordon V. Thompson Music.
Copyright (c) 2021 Saw Moses, Kyle R. Fyr, Natee Chiengchana
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.