Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of the Vacuum Liquid Chromatography Fractions of Mentha pulegium Growing in Iraq
Mentha pulegium, a species of Lamiaceae family, is flowering plant native to Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Crushed M. pulegium leaves exhibit a very strong fragrance like spearmint. The objective of the study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of M. pulegium stems and leaves vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractions. The powdered leaves and stems were macerated with absolute methanol then filtered using Buchner system. The filtrate was evaporated, then submitted to VLC using different solvents, and their fractions were collected. Phytochemical screening tests were done to investigate the chemical composition of methanol extract. The antibacterial effect of both methanol crude and the five extracts was studied on gram positive (S. aureus and S. haemolyticus) and gram negative (P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae) bacteria using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results indicate the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins in plant aerial parts with the presence of alkaloids but in a lesser degree. The result of antibacterial assay showed that MICs of methanol fraction were approximately 900 µg/ml for gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. haemolyticus), 225 µg/mL for P. aeruginosa and 450 µg/mL for K. pneumonia. While the best MBCs of the five fractions along with MOHM extract gave, the bactericidal effect in concentrations 450 μg/mL for P. aeruginosa. Our study is the first report on phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of VLC fractions of Mentha pulegium.
Aires, A., Marrinhas, E., Carvalho, R., Dias, C., & Saavedra, M. (2016). Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Pterospartum tridentatum and Mentha pulegium against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Bio Med Research International, 1, 1-11.
Alhazmi, A. (2015). Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms. International Journal of Biology, 7(2), 44-67.
Archer, G., Thanassi, J., Niemeyer, D., & Pucci M. (1996). Characterization of IS1272, an insertion sequence-like element from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 40(4), 924-929.
Brahmi, F., Boulkbache-Makhlouf, L., Yalaoui-Guellal, D., Chibane, M., & Madani, K. (2014). Comparative study on the antioxidant effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Mentha pulegium L. grown at two different locations. PhytoChem & BioSub Journal, 8(3), 138-149.
Chetri, S., & Khatri, D. (2017). Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of selected Nepalese plants. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(12), 951-968.
Cushnie, T., & Lamb, A. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 26(5), 343-356.
Díaz-Maroto, M., Castillo, N., Castro-Vázquez, L., Ángel González-Viñas, M., & Pérez-Coello, M. (2007). Volatile composition and olfactory profile of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) plants. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 22(2), 114-118.
Foganholi, A., Daniel, J., Santiago, D., Orives, J., Pereira, J., & Faria, T. (2015). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of pennyroyal essential oil in different stages of development. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 36(5), 3091-3100.
Hadi, M., Hameed, I., & Ibraheam, I. (2017) Mentha pulegium: medicinal uses, anti-hepatic, antibacterial, antioxidant effect and analysis of bioactive natural compounds: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 10(10), 3580-3584.
Hossain, M., AL-Raqmi, K., AL-Mijizy, Z., Weli, A., & Al-Riyami, Q. (2013). Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(9), 705-710.
Khaled-Khodja, N., Boulekbache-Makhlouf, L., & Madani, K. (2014). Phytochemical screening of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of some Lamiaceae. Industrial Crops and Products, 61, 41-48.
Lambert, P. (2002). Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 95(41), 22-26.
Le Loir, Y., Baron, F., & Gautier, M. (2003). Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genetics and Molecular Research, 2(1), 63-76.
Li, B., Zhao, Y., Liu, C., Chen, Z., & Zhou, D. (2014). Molecular pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Future Microbiology, 9(9), 1071-1081.
Magina, M., Dalmarco, E., Wisniewski, A., Simionatto, E., Dalmarco, J., Pizzolatti, M. G., & Brighente, I. M. (2009). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of Eugenia species. Journal of Natural Medicines, 63(3), 345-350.
Sasikala, M., & Sundaraganapathy, R. (2017) Qualitative analysis of alkaloids exist in the hydroalcoholic Extract of Ipomoea aquatic for SSK in Tamil Nadu. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 10(7), 446-454.
Teixeira, B., Marques, A., Ramos, C., Batista, I., Serrano, C., Matos, O., Neng , N. R., Noqueira, J. M. F., Saraiva, J. A., & Nunes, M. L. (2012). European pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) from Portugal: Chemical composition of essential oil and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts and essential oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 36(1), 81-87.
Tutar, U., Çelik, C., Karaman, İ., Ataş, M., & Hepokur, C. (2016). Anti-biofilm and antimicrobial activity of Mentha pulegium L essential oil against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacte baumannii. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 15(5), 1039-1046.
Zaidi, F., Voirin, B., Jay, M., & Viricel, M. (1998). Free flavonoid aglycones from leaves of Mentha pulegium and Mentha suaveolens (labiatae). Phytochemistry, 48(6), 991-994.
Zekri, N., Amalich, S, Boughdad, A., Alaoui El Belghiti, M., & Zair, T. (2013). Phytochemical study and insecticidal activity of Mentha pulegium L. oils from Morocco against Sitophilus oryzae. Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry, 2(4), 607-619.
Copyright (c) 2022 Salam Ahmed Abed, Alaa Abd Alhasan Hamdan, Ibrahim H. Jassim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.