Answering Questions, Questioning Answers: Understanding Tradisi and Moderen in the Intellectual Process of Balinese New Music Creations
Keywords:creativity, innovation, intellectuality, moderen, new music, tradisi
In Bali, compositional process in music was traditionally more intuitive than conceptual. The recreation of beauty in nature through musical expression and melodic ideas was and is still thought to be sufficient for many to form a musical repertoire. However, these examples may be perceived as naïve, straightforward, or simplistic expressions in comparison to newer styles of Balinese musical composition. This article discusses how the terms ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ are understood by academic and non-academic Balinese artists (both musicians and composers alike), and the extent to which they influence the aesthetics of Balinese composers’ musical creations. Initially, I examine the historical dimension of Balinese compositions with all of its challenges, considering the terms ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ as important to the understanding of the development of Balinese musical creations. I explore some new works for gamelan by Balinese composers, and further address some of the problems that arise in the development of Balinese music. Senior Balinese musicians/composers believe that local wisdom provides the foundation of Balinese music while the assimilation of global culture allows young musicians to innovate and develop their music without abandoning their indigenous identity. Younger Balinese composers are not only accepting, recreating, and changing established traditional/older music and ideas, but are now developing deeper, more intellectual methods of composition, expanding possibilities, and individual creativity to new levels. Older music is part of a new musical construction tailored to the way that composers create their works.
Comaroff, J. L. and Comaroff, J. (2009). Ethnicity, Inc. University of Chicago Press
Dibia, W. (2017). Kotekan: Dalam musik dan kehidupan Bali? Bali Mangsi Foundation.
Einstein, A. & Shaw, G.B. (1931). Einstein on cosmic religion and other opinions and aphorisms. Covici-Friede, Inc.
Gold. L. (2005). Music in Bali. Oxford University Press.
Hardjana, S. (2003). Corat-coret musik kontemporer dulu dan kini. Ford Foundation & Masyarakat Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia (MSPI).
Hardjana, S. (2004). Musik antara kritik dan apresiasi. Penerbit Buku Kompas, Kompas Media Nusantara.
Maceda, J. (2007). A concept of time. Arcana II musicians on music. Hips Road.
Mack, D. (2001). Musik kontemporer dan persoalan interkultural. Artiline, Jalasutra Offset.
McGraw, A. C. (2013). Radical traditions reimagining culture in Balinese contemporary music. Oxford University Press.
McPhee, C. (1966). Music in Bali: A study of form and instrumental organisation in Balinese orchestral music. Yale University Press.
Murgiyanto, S. (2004). Tradisi dan inovasi beberapa masalah tari di Indonesia. Wedatama Widya Sastra.
Picard, M. (1990). Cultural tourism in Bali: Cultural performances as tourist attraction, Indonesia, 49, 37-74.
Setiawan, E. (2015). Serba-serbi intuisi musikal dan yang alamiah dari peristiwa musik. Art Music Today.
Sjukur, S. A. (2012). Virus setan: Risalah pemikiran music Slamet Abdul Sjukur. Art Music Today.
Sjukur, S. A. (2014.) Sluman slumun Slamet: Esai-esai Slamet Abdul Sjukur. Art Music Today.
Sudirana, I. W. (2013). Borrowing, stealing, and transforming: Cross cultural influences in Balinese neo traditional composition. In Stepputat, K. (Ed.), Performing arts in postmodern Bali: Changing interpretation, founding tradition (pp. 165-185). Shaker Verlag.
Sudirana, I. W. (2013a). “Gamelan Gong Luang: Ritual, time, place, music, and change in a Balinese sacred ensemble [Doctoral Thesis, University of British Columbia].
Sudirana, I. W. (2019). Tradisi versus modern: Diskursus pemahaman istilah tradisi dan modern di Indonesia. Mudra Jurnal Seni Budaya 34(1), 127-135.
Sumardjo, J. (2000). Filsafat seni. Institut Teknologi Bandung.
Supanggah, R. (2003). Campur sari: A reflection. Asian Music 34(2), 1-20.
Tenzer, M., Moja, I. M., & Tenzer, M. (2011). Balinese gamelan music. Tuttle Publications
Tilley, L. (2019). Making it up together: The art of collective improvisation in Balinese music and beyond. University of Chicago Press.
Vickers, A. (2005). A history of modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press.
Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought. Solis Press.