The effect of the physical learning environment on students’ health, enjoyment and learning


  • Che Nidzam Che Ahmad Fakulti Sains dan Matematik, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Nurul Jannah Amirul Fakulti Sains Dan Matematik, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia



Physical environment, classroom, student learning, enjoyment


This study was conducted to analyze the suitability of the physical classroom learning environment and its effect on students’ health, enjoyment and learning. The participants of this study were 400 form four science students from six secondary schools in Johor, Malaysia. Students’ perception on physical aspects and its effect were measured using Physical Aspects Classroom Environment Inventory (PACE). The PACE consists of nine constructs. Six constructs which were furniture, facilities, space, lighting, indoor air quality and colour were used to measure the suitability of the physical classroom environment. While three constructs which were health, enjoyment, and learning were used to measure the effects of physical environment on students. The findings revealed that students perceived the suitability of physical environment is at high level for furniture, facilities, and lighting aspects, while moderate level for indoor air quality, space, and colour aspects. Results also showed that students perceived the physical environment have moderate effect on student’s health, enjoyment, and learning. Further analysis indicated that the physical environment have significant impact on students’ health, enjoyment and learning. These results provide valuable feedback to institutions and to educators in setting their learning environment.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad Fauzi Wahab. (2005). Pengurusan sumber fizikal IPT: Pengurusan ruang. Jurnal teknologi 43(E): 15-28. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Acredolo, L. (1979). Spatial orientation in infancy. In J. Baird & A.Lutkus (Eds.), Mind Child Architecture (pp65-85). London: University Press of New England.

Arzi, H. (2003). Enhancing science education laboratory environment: More than wall, benches and widgets. Dlm. Fraser, B.J. & Tobin, K. G. (Eds). International Hanbook of Science Education, Vol (1), Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bektas-Cetinkaya, Y., & Oruc, N. (2011). Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Learning Environment on Motivation of University Students. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(1);71-79.

Berris, R & Miller, E. (2011). How design of physical environment impacts early learning: Educators andparents perspectives. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(4).

Callahan, J. (2004). Effects of different seating arrangements in higher education computer lab classrooms on student learning, teaching style, and classroom appraisal. Disertasi PhD Tanpa Diterbitkan: Universiti Florida
Che Nidzam Che Ahmad, Kamisah Osman & Lilia Halim. (2010). Physical and psychosocial aspect of science laboratory learning environment. Procedia social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 9, 87 -91.

Che Nidzam Che Ahmad, Kamisah Osman & Lilia Halim (2010). Hubungan ramalan persekitaran pembelajaran makmal sains dengan tahapa kepuasan pelajar. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia, 35(2), 19-30.

Che Nidzam Che Ahmad, Lilia Halim , Tamby Subahan Mohd Meerah, Kamisah Osman, & Arbaat Hassan. (2009). Malaysian science laboratory: Issues and constrains, Paper presented at the ESERA conference, Istanbul, Turkey, 28th August-4th September.

Chism, N.V.N. (2006). Challenging traditional assumptions and rethinking learning spaces. Dlm. Oblinger, D.G. (Ed.). Learning Spaces, hlm. 2.0-2.12. Educause. Retrieved from [15 September 2007].

Curtis, D. & Carter, M. (2005). Rethinking early childhood environments to enhance learning.Young Children, 60 (3), 34-39.

Dudek, M. (2000).Kindergarten Architecture: Spaces for the imagination (2nd Ed). London: Spon Press.

Duncanson, E., Volpe, J., & Achilles, C. (2009). A Case Study: Natural Outcomes of Creating Classroom Space. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 26 (4): 1-9.Evans, G. (2006). Child development and the physical environment.Annual Review of Psychology, 57,423-451

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. & Tatham, R.L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. Edisi ke-6. Pearson: Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & Tatham, R.L. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Edisi ke-7. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Higgins, S., Hall, E., Wall, K., Woolner, P., & McCaughey, C. (2005). The Impact of School Environments: A literature review. United Kingdom, London: The Design Council.

Kamisah Osman, Che Nidzam Che Ahmad & Lilia Halim. (2011). Students’ perception of the physical and psychosocial science laboratory in Malaysia: Comparison across subject and school location. Procedia social and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 15, 1650-1655.

Keep, G. (2002). Building that teach. The Educational Facilities Planner, 37(2).

Lilia Halim. (2009). Improving science literacy through a conducive laboratory learning environment: A proposed model. Plenary paper presented at Third International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (CoSMEd) Penang, Malaysia. 10 - 12 November.

Liang, C., Hsu, Y., Huang, Y., & Chen, Sheng-Chih. (2012). How learning environments can stimulate student imagination. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(4); 432-441.

Lippman, P.C. (2010). Can the physical environment have an impact on the learning environment?

Maker, C. J., & Nielson, A. B. (1995). Teaching models in education of the gifted. Edisi Kedua. Texas: Pro-Ed.

Marzita Puteh, Mohd Hairy Ibrahim, Mazlini Adnan, Che Nidzam Che Ahmad & Noraini Mohamed Noh. (2012). Themal comfort in Classroom: Constrains and Issues. Procedia social and Behavioral Sciences Journal.

Maxwell, L (2007). Competency in Child Care Settings: The Role of the Physical Environment. Environment and Behavior 39 (2):229 – 245.

Mohd Majid Konting. 2005. Kaedah Penyelidikan Pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Mohd Hairy Ibrahim, Marzita Puteh, Mazlini Adnan, Che Nidzam Che Ahmad & Noraini Mohamed Noh. (2012). Kesan perubahan iklim terhadap keselesaan terma: Cabaran di sekolah. Prosiding. 1st International conference on innovation and technology for sustainable built environment (ICITSBE), Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak.

Moore, G. & T. Sugiyama (2007). The Children’s Physical Environment Rating Scale (CP ERS): Reliability and Validity for Assessing the Physical Environment of Early Childhood EducationalFacilities. Children, Youth and Environment, 17 (4), 24-53.

Moos, R.H. (1979). Evaluating Educational Environments: Procedures, Measures, Finding and Policy Implication. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Nurul Syakima, M.Y., Maimunah Sapri, & Mohd Shahril, A.R. (2011). Measuring Performance for Classroom Facilities. 2011 International Conference Sociality and Economics Development (IPEDR), LACSIT Press, Singapore.

Read, M. (2007). Sense of place in child care environments. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(6),387-392.

Read, M., A. Sugawara & Brandt, J. (1999). Impact of space and color in the physical environment on preschool children’s cooperative behavior. Environment and Behavior, 31(3), 413-428.

Rozita Abdul Latif (2009). Pengaruh sokongan interpersonal ibubapa, rakan sebaya, sekolah dan persekitaran fizikal terhadap penglibatan remaja dalam aktiviti fizikal. Tesis PhD. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Sanoff, H. (2000). Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning, Wiley, New York.

Strange, C.C. & Banning, J.H. (2001). Educating by Design: Creating Campus Learning Environments That Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tang, Swee Mei & Lim, Kong Teong. (2002). Hubungan antara kualiti pengajaran dan pembelajaran dengan kepuasan pelajar: Satu tinjauan. Utara Management Review 3 (1): 67-85.

Tanner, C.K. (2009) Effects of school design on student outcomes. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(3); 381-399.

Veal, W.R & Jackson, Z. (2005). Developing a primary science methods classroom. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 4: 195-213.

Weinstein, C. (1987). Design preschool classrooms to support development. In C. Weinstein & D.Thomas (Eds.), Spaces for Children: The Built Environment and Child Development (pp159-185).New York: Plenum Press.

Wong, A.F.L. & Fraser, B.J. (1996). Environment-attitude associations in the chemistry laboratory classroom. Research in science and Technological Education 14(1): 91102.

Woolfolk, A. 2007. Educational psychology. Edisi ke-10. Allyn and Bacon.




How to Cite

Che Ahmad, C. N., & Amirul, N. J. (2017). The effect of the physical learning environment on students’ health, enjoyment and learning. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Dan Matematik Malaysia, 7(1), 47–55.

Most read articles by the same author(s)